Dr Ahmed Shafik is an Egyptian researcher whose studies center on human sexual physiology and associated reflexes.He has written more than 1000 articles. He performed the first bladder transplant in 1967. His articles in the Journal of Urology, are published under the name 'Shafik I.' and his articles in the British Journal of Urology and in medical literature are published under 'Shafik II'.His research has brought official criticism from the Egyptian Government.
In 1963, he was arrested and held for three months, while developing a new technique for urinary diversion. It was later published in the Journal of Urology. In 1964, he was arrested and held for a year while working on fashioning an artificial bladder. His performing the first bladder transplant in 1967 resulted in disciplinary measures with the administration of his hospital.