Dr. Karmali’s research seeks to understand how the brain determines spatial orientation when using senses such as the vestibular system and vision. Most recently, he has been interested in how neural noise results in errors in motion perception, posture, the vestibulo-ocular reflex (eye movements that respond to head movement), and piloting tasks. These errors can be critical to survival, yet our understanding of their origins and our ability to test them clinically are still evolving.