$ (7 kpc), reaching a 5-$\\sigma$ column density limit of $10^{17.9}$ cm$^{-2}$ assuming a line width of 20 km s$^{-1}$. Taking the existing interferometric HI image from the HALOGAS project of WSRT as reference, we are able to identify and characterize a significant excess of large-scale, low-density, and diffuse HI in the group. This diffuse HI extends for more than 120 kpc across, and accounts for more than one fourth of the total HI detected by FAST in and around the galaxy NGC 4631. In the region of the tidal tails, the diffuse HI has a typical column density above $10^{19.5}$ cm$^{-2}$, and is highly turbulent with a velocity dispersion around 50 km s$^{-1}$. It increases in column density with the dense HI, and tends to be associated with the kinematically ``hotter'' part of the dense HI. Through simple modeling, we find that the majority of the diffuse HI in the tail region is likely to induce cooling out of the hot IGM instead of evaporating or being radiatively ionized. Given these relations of gas in different phases, the diffuse HI may represent a condensing phase of the IGM. Active tidal interactions on-going and in the past may have produced the wide-spreading HI distribution, and triggered the gas accretion to NGC 4631 through the phase of the diffuse HI.","authors":[{"id":"542c5a4edabfae2b4e20747f","name":"Jing Wang"},{"name":"Dong Yang"},{"id":"53f44f95dabfaee2a1d5915f","name":"Se–Heon Oh"},{"id":"53f44bc4dabfaee0d9bc9853","name":"L. Staveley‐Smith"},{"id":"56cb18bac35f4f3c6565e84f","name":"Jie Wang"},{"id":"53f4537ddabfaedd74e22937","name":"Q. Daniel Wang"},{"id":"53f3a1bcdabfae4b34abe4a3","name":"Kelley M. Hess"},{"id":"5433f08ddabfaebba58306a0","name":"Luis C. Ho"},{"id":"651c8e738a47b61c50d1f03e","name":"Ligang Hou"},{"id":"63dd14ccd844ef7aed38e476","name":"Yingjie Jing"},{"name":"P. Kamphuis"},{"id":"6534e1c38a47b6492320545b","name":"Fujia Li"},{"id":"650e88b0768b11dc72a17488","name":"Xuchen Lin"},{"id":"6531663750dee4c42274625c","name":"Ziming Liu"},{"id":"64d4e06a8a47b67785688066","name":"Li Shao"},{"id":"6325cc0d293b827d8577db3e","name":"Shun Wang"},{"name":"Meifang Zhu"}],"create_time":"2024-01-19T08:30:28.446Z","doi":"10.48550\u002Farxiv.2301.00937","hashs":{"h1":"fictt","h3":"idpn4"},"id":"6578d08e939a5f4082614b35","keywords":["tidal interactions","ngc","hi phase","igm"],"num_citation":0,"title":"FEASTS: IGM cooling triggered by tidal interactions through the diffuse\n HI phase around NGC 4631","urls":["https:\u002F\u002Fopenalex.org\u002FW4313531250"],"venue":{"info":{"name":"arXiv (Cornell University)"}},"versions":[{"id":"6578d08e939a5f4082614b35","sid":"W4313531250","src":"openalex","year":2023}],"year":2023},{"abstract":" We present observations and timing analyses of 68 millisecond pulsars (MSPs) comprising the 15-year data set of the North American Nanohertz Observatory for Gravitational Waves (NANOGrav). NANOGrav is a pulsar timing array (PTA) experiment that is sensitive to low-frequency gravitational waves. This is NANOGrav's fifth public data release, including both \"narrowband\" and \"wideband\" time-of-arrival (TOA) measurements and corresponding pulsar timing models. We have added 21 MSPs and extended our timing baselines by three years, now spanning nearly 16 years for some of our sources. The data were collected using the Arecibo Observatory, the Green Bank Telescope, and the Very Large Array between frequencies of 327 MHz and 3 GHz, with most sources observed approximately monthly. A number of notable methodological and procedural changes were made compared to our previous data sets. These improve the overall quality of the TOA data set and are part of the transition to new pulsar timing and PTA analysis software packages. For the first time, our data products are accompanied by a full suite of software to reproduce data reduction, analysis, and results. Our timing models include a variety of newly detected astrometric and binary pulsar parameters, including several significant improvements to pulsar mass constraints. We find that the time series of 23 pulsars contain detectable levels of red noise, 10 of which are new measurements. In this data set, we find evidence for a stochastic gravitational-wave background. ","authors":[{"name":"Gabriella Agazie"},{"name":"Md Faisal Alam"},{"name":"Akash Anumarlapudi"},{"id":"53f31d2fdabfae9a84440d50","name":"Anne M. Archibald"},{"id":"53f443f6dabfaeb22f4b5d1d","name":"Zaven Arzoumanian"},{"id":"53f452dedabfaee1c0b1f6df","name":"Paul T. Baker"},{"id":"53f444f1dabfaeb22f4b9aae","name":"Laura Blecha"},{"id":"64075bdbe9b119538a5fa823","name":"Victoria Bonidie"},{"name":"Adam Brazier"},{"name":"Paul R. Brook"},{"id":"53f43076dabfaeb2ac010c51","name":"Sarah Burke-Spolaor"},{"name":"Bence Bécsy"},{"id":"655fd39650dee4c422bd9abd","name":"Christopher Chapman"},{"id":"63afa6c184ab04bd7fb9f55f","name":"Maria Charisi"},{"id":"54488340dabfae87b7e381a6","name":"Shami Chatterjee"},{"id":"64c13c5a9fbb79c7b8cc0063","name":"Tyler Cohen"},{"id":"6153cc196750f8727fa33f20","name":"James M. Cordes"},{"id":"53f7e94fdabfae9060af7250","name":"Neil J. Cornish"},{"id":"53f32281dabfae9a8445e51b","name":"Fronefield Crawford"},{"id":"62e4c25ad9f204418d72d99a","name":"H. Thankful Cromartie"},{"id":"63afbfc684ab04bd7fbd8137","name":"Kathryn Crowter"},{"id":"53f38becdabfae4b34a35ed5","name":"Megan E. DeCesar"},{"name":"Paul B. Demorest"},{"id":"56319b2d45cedb3399e92b2b","name":"Timothy Dolch"},{"name":"Brendan Drachler"},{"id":"53f4376cdabfaeb2ac05c3f0","name":"Elizabeth C. Ferrara"},{"name":"William Fiore"},{"name":"Emmanuel Fonseca"},{"name":"Gabriel E. Freedman"},{"id":"6458fe9e795b5754c8b9b93d","name":"Nate Garver-Daniels"},{"id":"65248adb55b3f8ac463d8828","name":"Peter A. Gentile"},{"name":"Joseph Glaser"},{"id":"63fbf132b1d21100017c2a1f","name":"Deborah C. Good"},{"id":"615582dd9e795e604ab3a8b7","name":"Kayhan Gültekin"},{"name":"Jeffrey S. Hazboun"},{"name":"Ross J. Jennings"},{"id":"6592474bc4d929f0c8760952","name":"Cody Jessup"},{"id":"655712bf145e064b7afcbec7","name":"Aaron D. Johnson"},{"name":"Megan L. Jones"},{"id":"62e4c259d9f204418d72d8f1","name":"Andrew R. Kaiser"},{"id":"53f45697dabfaefedbb5132a","name":"David L. Kaplan"},{"id":"53f42b6ddabfaeb2acfcb5c7","name":"Luke Zoltan Kelley"},{"id":"561e744c45ce1e596491c289","name":"Matthew Kerr"},{"name":"Joey S. Key"},{"id":"6524fbc855b3f8ac465f5d3d","name":"Anastasia Kuske"},{"id":"64c2783f75f2d368222aa1d9","name":"Nima Laal"},{"id":"5433e3e0dabfaeb4c6ad2122","name":"Michael T. Lam"},{"name":"William G. Lamb"},{"id":"53f42c8fdabfaee02ac54ddc","name":"T. Joseph W. Lazio"},{"id":"637cbc60f789b382beaf7ee6","name":"Natalia Lewandowska"},{"name":"Ye Lin"},{"id":"63735871ec88d95668d6ec7e","name":"Tingting Liu"},{"id":"562dedfa45ce1e5967b577bd","name":"Duncan R. Lorimer"},{"name":"Jing Luo"},{"name":"Ryan S. Lynch"},{"id":"53f46761dabfaeee22a573c3","name":"Chung-Pei Ma"},{"name":"Dustin R. Madison"},{"name":"Kaleb Maraccini"},{"name":"Alexander McEwen"},{"name":"James W. McKee"},{"id":"53f435ccdabfaeb1a7bef2e9","name":"Maura A. McLaughlin"},{"name":"Natasha McMann"},{"id":"64032c757691d561fb0d26bf","name":"Bradley W. Meyers"},{"id":"53f43341dabfaee1c0a7d811","name":"Chiara M. F. Mingarelli"},{"name":"Andrea Mitridate"},{"name":"Cherry Ng"},{"name":"David J. Nice"},{"name":"Stella Koch Ocker"},{"name":"Ken D. Olum"},{"id":"6524961455b3f8ac463f4af5","name":"Elisa Panciu"},{"name":"Timothy T. Pennucci"},{"name":"Benetge B. P. Perera"},{"id":"62e4b896d9f204418d6fac23","name":"Nihan S. Pol"},{"name":"Henri A. Radovan"},{"id":"53f56c26dabfae6fd8f80491","name":"Scott M. Ransom"},{"id":"53f433f0dabfaeb2ac03ada2","name":"Paul S. Ray"},{"id":"53f64217dabfae0fad9bf144","name":"Joseph D. Romano"},{"id":"64cc40096097cb443c08c9ba","name":"Laura Salo"},{"name":"Shashwat C. Sardesai"},{"name":"Carl Schmiedekamp"},{"id":"53f45616dabfaec09f205721","name":"Ann Schmiedekamp"},{"id":"56037cad45cedb33961a7886","name":"Kai Schmitz"},{"name":"Brent J. Shapiro-Albert"},{"id":"53f4356fdabfaee4dc77aad1","name":"Xavier Siemens"},{"id":"6329512930241ae3e5b067d4","name":"Joseph Simon"},{"id":"6401691fe0aa0262c78e3a72","name":"Magdalena S. Siwek"},{"id":"53f42dd8dabfaeb1a7b90f88","name":"Ingrid H. Stairs"},{"name":"Daniel R. Stinebring"},{"id":"53f444c6dabfaee0d9bac976","name":"Kevin Stovall"},{"id":"62e4b987d9f204418d700ab2","name":"Abhimanyu Susobhanan"},{"id":"65248adb55b3f8ac463d882b","name":"Joseph K. Swiggum"},{"id":"65570e19145e064b7afc6f70","name":"Stephen R. Taylor"},{"name":"Jacob E. Turner"},{"id":"62e48a54d9f204418d6a118f","name":"Caner Unal"},{"id":"53f4d478dabfaeedd078226e","name":"Michele Vallisneri"},{"id":"637a54f5f789b382bea07fb4","name":"Sarah J. Vigeland"},{"name":"Haley M. Wahl"},{"id":"53f4537ddabfaedd74e22937","name":"Qiaohong Wang"},{"id":"62e4c1fed9f204418d72c495","name":"Caitlin A. Witt"},{"id":"6399cddc30131055052c8100","name":"Olivia Young"}],"create_time":"2023-06-29T05:09:29.396Z","hashs":{"h1":"n1dso","h3":"t6mp"},"id":"649d037cd68f896efa4567c0","num_citation":0,"pdf":"https:\u002F\u002Fcz5waila03cyo0tux1owpyofgoryroob.aminer.cn\u002F43\u002F37\u002F5C\u002F43375CBC55507946C2560E7338150A14.pdf","title":"The NANOGrav 15-year Data Set: Observations and Timing of 68 Millisecond\n Pulsars","urls":["https:\u002F\u002Farxiv.org\u002Fabs\u002F2306.16217"],"venue":{},"versions":[{"id":"649d037cd68f896efa4567c0","sid":"2306.16217","src":"arxiv","year":2023}],"year":2023},{"abstract":"The Hot Universe Baryon Surveyor (HUBS) is a proposed space-based X-ray telescope for detecting X-ray emissions from the hot gas content in our universe. With its unprecedented spatially-resolved high-resolution spectroscopy and large field of view, the HUBS mission will be uniquely qualified to measure the physical and chemical properties of the hot gas in the interstellar medium, the circumgalactic medium, the intergalactic medium, and the intracluster medium. These measurements will be valuable for two key scientific goals of HUBS, namely to unravel the AGN and stellar feedback physics that governs the formation and evolution of galaxies, and to probe the baryon budget and multi-phase states from galactic to cosmological scales. In addition to these two goals, the HUBS mission will also help us solve some problems in the fields of galaxy clusters, AGNs, diffuse X-ray backgrounds, supernova remnants, and compact objects. This paper discusses the perspective of advancing these fields using the HUBS telescope.","authors":[{"id":"53f447f2dabfaec09f1cf40b","name":"Joel Bregman","org":"Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, USA","orgid":"5f71b35f1c455f439fe4267b","orgs":["Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, USA"]},{"id":"6142e59c9e795e72b1876f95","name":"Renyue Cen","org":"Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, Zhejiang University, China","orgs":["Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, Zhejiang University, China"]},{"id":"542d8de5dabfae11fc480f61","name":"Yang Chen","org":"School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, China","orgid":"5f71b51a1c455f439fe4ecc1","orgs":["School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, China","Key Laboratory of Modern Astronomy and Astrophysics, Nanjing University, China"]},{"email":"cui@tsinghua.edu.cn","id":"56035d7245cedb3396163d47","name":"Wei Cui","org":"Department of Astronomy, Tsinghua University, China","orgid":"5f71b2881c455f439fe3c860","orgs":["Department of Astronomy, Tsinghua University, China"]},{"id":"53f4d803dabfaef64977b54d","name":"Taotao Fang","org":"Department of Astronomy, Xiamen University, China","orgid":"5f71b2bd1c455f439fe3deb7","orgs":["Department of Astronomy, Xiamen University, China"]},{"id":"56cb18a3c35f4f3c6565837a","name":"Fulai Guo","org":"Astrophysics Division, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China","orgs":["Astrophysics Division, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China","Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China"]},{"id":"53f47623dabfaec09f27d893","name":"Edmund Hodges-Kluck","org":"NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, USA","orgs":["NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, USA"]},{"id":"63273aa8a95e4d1d0555fd81","name":"Rui Huang","org":"Department of Astronomy, Tsinghua University, China","orgid":"5f71b2881c455f439fe3c860","orgs":["Department of Astronomy, Tsinghua University, China"]},{"id":"5433f08ddabfaebba58306a0","name":"Luis C. Ho","org":"Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, China","orgid":"5f71b2881c455f439fe3c85d","orgs":["Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, China","Department of Astronomy, School of Physics, Peking University, China"]},{"id":"56cb188ec35f4f3c656505bb","name":"Li Ji","org":"Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China","orgid":"5f71b29f1c455f439fe3d25c","orgs":["Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China"]},{"email":"suoqing@shao.ac.cn","id":"62e4825cd9f204418d694132","name":"Suoqing Ji","org":"Astrophysics Division, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China","orgs":["Astrophysics Division, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China","Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China"]},{"id":"60dad89b6750f876c2cb4741","name":"Xi Kang","org":"Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, Zhejiang University, China","orgs":["Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, Zhejiang University, China","Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China"]},{"id":"53f42cd7dabfaedd74d2ee0b","name":"Xiaoyu Lai","org":"Department of Physics and Astronomy, Hubei University of Education, China","orgs":["Department of Physics and Astronomy, Hubei University of Education, China"]},{"id":"59c579d19ed5db7081dcf96c","name":"Hui Li","org":"Department of Astronomy, Tsinghua University, China","orgid":"5f71b2881c455f439fe3c860","orgs":["Department of Astronomy, Tsinghua University, China"]},{"id":"54483752dabfae87b7dea091","name":"Jiangtao Li","org":"Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China","orgid":"5f71b29f1c455f439fe3d25c","orgs":["Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China","Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, USA"]},{"id":"62e48284d9f204418d69441b","name":"Miao Li","org":"Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, Zhejiang University, China","orgs":["Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, Zhejiang University, China"]},{"id":"544098c0dabfae7f9b342a7c","name":"Xiangdong Li","org":"School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, China","orgid":"5f71b51a1c455f439fe4ecc1","orgs":["School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, China","Key Laboratory of Modern Astronomy and Astrophysics, Nanjing University, China"]},{"id":"5631151945cedb3399c897e0","name":"Yuan Li","org":"Department of Physics, University of North Texas, USA","orgid":"5f71b28f1c455f439fe3cb1e","orgs":["Department of Physics, University of North Texas, USA"]},{"id":"5613ca6f45cedb33979f5717","name":"Zhaosheng Li","org":"Key Laboratory of Stars and Interstellar Medium, Xiangtan University, China","orgs":["Key Laboratory of Stars and Interstellar Medium, Xiangtan University, China"]},{"id":"53f46a6adabfaee4dc85e627","name":"Guiyun Liang","org":"CAS Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China","orgid":"5f71b29f1c455f439fe3d25c","orgs":["CAS Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China"]},{"id":"608573a99e795e5045d20763","name":"Helei Liu","org":"School of Physical Science and Technology, Xinjiang University, China","orgid":"5f71b45e1c455f439fe497ab","orgs":["School of Physical Science and Technology, Xinjiang University, China"]},{"id":"63249008c03fbd5be1f9524d","name":"Wenhao Liu","org":"Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China","orgid":"5f71b29f1c455f439fe3d25c","orgs":["Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China"]},{"id":"60e2bb8f9e795ecf20d092c7","name":"Fangjun Lu","org":"Key Laboratory for Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China","orgid":"5f71b29f1c455f439fe3d25c","orgs":["Key Laboratory for Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China"]},{"id":"53f44991dabfaedd74dfb5c2","name":"Junjie Mao","org":"Department of Astronomy, Tsinghua University, China","orgid":"5f71b2881c455f439fe3c860","orgs":["Department of Astronomy, Tsinghua University, China"]},{"id":"53f5ac3adabfae22bdf8045b","name":"Gabriele Ponti","org":"INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Italy","orgs":["INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Italy"]},{"id":"62e4826fd9f204418d6942c5","name":"Zhijie Qu","org":"Department of Astronomy & Astrophysics, the University of Chicago, USA","orgs":["Department of Astronomy & Astrophysics, the University of Chicago, USA"]},{"id":"65176343768b11dc72aaac13","name":"Chenxi Shan","org":"School of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China","orgid":"5f71b54b1c455f439fe502b0","orgs":["School of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China"]},{"id":"562630ba45ce1e5965389d1e","name":"Lijing Shao","org":"Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, China","orgid":"5f71b2881c455f439fe3c85d","orgs":["Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, China"]},{"id":"63afa2fe84ab04bd7fb9769e","name":"Fangzheng Shi","org":"Astrophysics Division, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China","orgs":["Astrophysics Division, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China"]},{"id":"560e38c745ce1e596123b993","name":"Xinwen Shu","org":"Department of Physics, Anhui Normal University, China","orgid":"5f71b4601c455f439fe498ae","orgs":["Department of Physics, Anhui Normal University, China"]},{"id":"64cc9c4570d44317c2e34da2","name":"Lei Sun","org":"School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, China","orgid":"5f71b51a1c455f439fe4ecc1","orgs":["School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, China","Key Laboratory of Modern Astronomy and Astrophysics, Nanjing University, China"]},{"id":"5613ea2145cedb3397a09d4c","name":"Mouyuan Sun","org":"Department of Astronomy, Xiamen University, China","orgid":"5f71b2bd1c455f439fe3deb7","orgs":["Department of Astronomy, Xiamen University, China"]},{"id":"542a6c68dabfae61d497b144","name":"Hao Tong","org":"School of Physics and Materials Science, Guangzhou University, China","orgid":"5f71b2fd1c455f439fe3fab3","orgs":["School of Physics and Materials Science, Guangzhou University, China"]},{"id":"5629513945ce1e59663600e3","name":"Junfeng Wang","org":"Department of Astronomy, Xiamen University, China","orgid":"5f71b2bd1c455f439fe3deb7","orgs":["Department of Astronomy, Xiamen University, China"]},{"id":"54454139dabfae862da0f518","name":"Junxian Wang","org":"Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China, China","orgs":["Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China, China"]},{"id":"53f4537ddabfaedd74e22937","name":"Q. Daniel Wang","org":"Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, USA","orgid":"5f71b2951c455f439fe3cdb3","orgs":["Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, USA"]},{"id":"5405e038dabfae44f082ff99","name":"Song Wang","org":"Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China","orgid":"5f71b29f1c455f439fe3d25c","orgs":["Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China"]},{"id":"545927b0dabfaeb0fe329978","name":"Tinggui Wang","org":"Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China, China","orgs":["Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China, China"]},{"id":"655c8eb533d15b6ea6a7d54c","name":"Weiyang Wang","org":"School of Physics and State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, China","orgid":"5f71b2881c455f439fe3c85d","orgs":["School of Physics and State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, China","Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, China"]},{"id":"60e2bdb36750f80c68e4e932","name":"Zhongxiang Wang","org":"Department of Astronomy, School of Physics and Astronomy, Yunnan University, China","orgs":["Department of Astronomy, School of Physics and Astronomy, Yunnan University, China"]},{"email":"dandanxu@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn","id":"54488645dabfae8575913e2d","name":"Dandan Xu","org":"Department of Astronomy, Tsinghua University, China","orgid":"5f71b2881c455f439fe3c860","orgs":["Department of Astronomy, Tsinghua University, China"]},{"email":"hgxu@sjtu.edu.cn","id":"55fa6eb845ceb5955397d350","name":"Haiguang Xu","org":"School of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China","orgid":"5f71b54b1c455f439fe502b0","orgs":["School of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China"]},{"id":"53f46467dabfaedd74e61eb9","name":"Heng Xu","org":"National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China","orgid":"5f71b29f1c455f439fe3d25c","orgs":["National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China"]},{"id":"53f4664bdabfaeee22a53292","name":"Renxin Xu","org":"School of Physics and State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, China","orgid":"5f71b2881c455f439fe3c85d","orgs":["School of Physics and State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, China","Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, China"]},{"id":"561709e445cedb3397bb0bec","name":"Xiaojie Xu","org":"School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, China","orgid":"5f71b51a1c455f439fe4ecc1","orgs":["School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, China","Key Laboratory of Modern Astronomy and Astrophysics, Nanjing University, China"]},{"id":"542a3fcddabfae61d495ecc7","name":"Yongquan Xue","org":"Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China, China","orgs":["Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China, China"]},{"name":"Hang Yang","org":"Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China","orgid":"5f71b29f1c455f439fe3d25c","orgs":["Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China"]},{"email":"fyuan@shao.ac.cn","id":"53f43392dabfaec09f160fa0","name":"Feng Yuan","org":"Astrophysics Division, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China","orgs":["Astrophysics Division, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China","Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China"]},{"id":"53f45227dabfaeecd69db36d","name":"Shuinai Zhang","org":"Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China","orgid":"5f71b29f1c455f439fe3d25c","orgs":["Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China"]},{"id":"64827abec362620001ec1b36","name":"Yuning Zhang","org":"Department of Astronomy, Tsinghua University, China","orgid":"5f71b2881c455f439fe3c860","orgs":["Department of Astronomy, Tsinghua University, China"]},{"id":"64f012a4559445a0412a81dc","name":"Zhongli Zhang","org":"Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Key Laboratory of Radio Astronomy, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China","orgs":["Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Key Laboratory of Radio Astronomy, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China"]},{"id":"56167cf945cedb3397b40ee1","name":"Yuanyuan Zhao","org":"School of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China","orgid":"5f71b54b1c455f439fe502b0","orgs":["School of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China"]},{"id":"62e48fd1d9f204418d6ae542","name":"Enping Zhou","org":"Department of Astronomy, School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, China","orgs":["Department of Astronomy, School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, China"]},{"id":"545925eedabfaeb0fe3223c9","name":"Ping Zhou","org":"School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, China","orgid":"5f71b51a1c455f439fe4ecc1","orgs":["School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, China","Key Laboratory of Modern Astronomy and Astrophysics, Nanjing University, China"]}],"create_time":"2023-07-13T04:54:39.06Z","hashs":{"h1":"sohub","h3":"shm"},"id":"64af76ed3fda6d7f064711d3","issn":"1674-7348","num_citation":0,"pages":{"end":"45","start":"1"},"pdf":"https:\u002F\u002Fcz5waila03cyo0tux1owpyofgoryroob.aminer.cn\u002F30\u002F05\u002F83\u002F3005833086B99AABBF701288C243C9FE.pdf","title":"Scientific objectives of the Hot Universe Baryon Surveyor (HUBS) mission","urls":["https:\u002F\u002Flink.springer.com\u002Farticle\u002F10.1007\u002Fs11433-023-2149-y","https:\u002F\u002Fopenalex.org\u002FW4385999442","https:\u002F\u002Fopenalex.org\u002FW4384263433","http:\u002F\u002Fwww.webofknowledge.com\u002F","https:\u002F\u002Farxiv.org\u002Fabs\u002F2307.05672"],"venue":{"info":{"name":"SCIENCE CHINA-PHYSICS MECHANICS & ASTRONOMY"},"issue":"9","volume":"66"},"versions":[{"id":"64af76ed3fda6d7f064711d3","sid":"2307.05672","src":"arxiv","year":2023},{"id":"64f98b723fda6d7f065f379a","sid":"WOS:001052236400001","src":"wos","year":2023},{"id":"6578d050939a5f408260e83c","sid":"W4384263433","src":"openalex","year":2023},{"id":"65791a62939a5f4082dd02be","sid":"W4385999442","src":"openalex","year":2023},{"id":"6582a539939a5f4082da9276","sid":"10.1007\u002Fs11433-023-2149-y","src":"springer","year":2023},{"id":"64e2dec73fda6d7f064525f3","sid":"10.1007\u002Fs11433-023-2149-y","src":"springernature","year":2023}],"year":2023},{"abstract":" Molecular gas plays a critical role in explaining the quiescence of star formation (SF) in massive isolated spiral galaxies, which could be a result of either the low molecular gas content and\u002For the low SF efficiency. We present IRAM 30m observations of the CO lines in the Sombrero galaxy (NGC~4594), the most massive spiral at $d\\lesssim30\\rm~Mpc$. We detect at least one of the three CO lines covered by our observations in all 13 observed positions located at the galactic nucleus and along a $\\sim25\\rm~kpc$-diameter dusty ring. The total extrapolated molecular gas mass of the galaxy is $M_{\\rm H_2}\\approx4\\times10^{8}\\rm~M_\\odot$. The measured maximum CO gas rotation velocity of $\\approx379\\rm~km~s^{-1}$ suggests that NGC~4594 locates in a dark matter halo with a mass $M_{\\rm200}\\gtrsim10^{13}\\rm~M_\\odot$. Comparing to other galaxy samples, NGC~4594 is extremely gas poor and SF inactive, but the SF efficiency is apparently not inconsistent with that predicted by the Kennicutt-Schmidt law, so there is no evidence of enhanced SF quenching in this extremely massive spiral with a huge bulge. We also calculate the predicted gas supply rate from various sources to replenish the cold gas consumed in SF, and find that the galaxy must experienced a starburst stage at high redshift, then the leftover or recycled gas provides SF fuels to maintain the gradual growth of the galactic disk at a gentle rate. ","authors":[{"name":"Yan Jiang"},{"id":"54483752dabfae87b7dea091","name":"Jiang-Tao Li","org":"Purple Mountain Observatory","orgid":"5f71b2b51c455f439fe3daf5","orgs":["Purple Mountain Observatory","Chinese Academy of Sciences"]},{"id":"54451f63dabfae862da07d6a","name":"Yu Gao","org":"Xiamen University of Technology","orgid":"5f71b8c51c455f439fe60bb7","orgs":["Xiamen University of Technology","Purple Mountain Observatory","Chinese Academy of Sciences"]},{"id":"53f447f2dabfaec09f1cf40b","name":"Joel N. Bregman","org":"University of Michigan–Ann Arbor","orgid":"5f71b35f1c455f439fe4267b","orgs":["University of Michigan–Ann Arbor"]},{"id":"646060d5795b5754c8c8a2f2","name":"Li Ji","org":"Purple Mountain Observatory","orgid":"5f71b2b51c455f439fe3daf5","orgs":["Purple Mountain Observatory","Chinese Academy of Sciences"]},{"id":"53f45d84dabfaee1c0b47830","name":"Xuejian Jiang","org":"Zhejiang Lab","orgid":"61e6a243689627346574d86e","orgs":["Zhejiang Lab"]},{"id":"62e8aca8d9f20422f0b9891b","name":"Qinghua Tan","org":"Purple Mountain Observatory","orgid":"5f71b2b51c455f439fe3daf5","orgs":["Purple Mountain Observatory","Chinese Academy of Sciences"]},{"id":"6446e3e2e3c28ee84c585408","name":"Jiangfa Wang"},{"id":"53f4537ddabfaedd74e22937","name":"Q. Daniel Wang","org":"University of Massachusetts Amherst","orgid":"5f71b2951c455f439fe3cdb2","orgs":["University of Massachusetts Amherst"]},{"id":"6453515484c0d9f463131663","name":"Yang Yang","org":"Purple Mountain Observatory","orgid":"5f71b2b51c455f439fe3daf5","orgs":["Purple Mountain Observatory","Chinese Academy of Sciences"]}],"create_time":"2024-01-02T03:14:04.551Z","hashs":{"h1":"ci3om","h3":"gsg"},"id":"64dafb293fda6d7f064e2c33","issn":"0035-8711","num_citation":0,"pdf":"https:\u002F\u002Fcz5waila03cyo0tux1owpyofgoryroob.aminer.cn\u002F06\u002F9D\u002FEC\u002F069DECED80A697A7DBBB0255FAA3E9F8.pdf","title":"CO-CHANGES I: IRAM 30m CO Observations of Molecular Gas in the Sombrero\n Galaxy","urls":["https:\u002F\u002Fopenalex.org\u002FW4385889620","https:\u002F\u002Fopenalex.org\u002FW4386008133","https:\u002F\u002Farxiv.org\u002Fabs\u002F2308.06750"],"venue":{"info":{"name":"Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society"}},"versions":[{"id":"64dafb293fda6d7f064e2c33","sid":"2308.06750","src":"arxiv","year":2023},{"id":"6578e41a939a5f40828345d3","sid":"W4386008133","src":"openalex","year":2023},{"id":"6578e409939a5f4082832396","sid":"W4385889620","src":"openalex","year":2023}],"year":2023},{"abstract":" The Astro2020 Decadal Survey has identified the mapping of the circumgalactic medium (CGM, gaseous plasma around galaxies) as a key objective. We explore the prospects for characterizing the CGM in and around nearby galaxy halos with future large grasp X-ray microcalorimeters. We create realistic mock observations from hydrodynamical simulations (EAGLE, IllustrisTNG, and Simba) that demonstrate a wide range of potential measurements, which will address the open questions in galaxy formation and evolution. By including all background and foreground components in our mock observations, we show why it is impossible to perform these measurements with current instruments, such as X-ray CCDs, and only microcalorimeters will allow us to distinguish the faint CGM emission from the bright Milky Way (MW) foreground emission lines. We find that individual halos of MW mass can, on average, be traced out to large radii, around R500, and for larger galaxies even out to R200, using the OVII, OVIII, or FeXVII emission lines. Furthermore, we show that emission line ratios for individual halos can reveal the radial temperature structure. Substructure measurements show that it will be possible to relate azimuthal variations to the feedback mode of the galaxy. We demonstrate the ability to construct temperature, velocity, and abundance ratio maps from spectral fitting for individual galaxy halos, which reveal rotation features, AGN outbursts, and enrichment. ","authors":[{"id":"62e485e4d9f204418d69852e","name":"Gerrit Schellenberger"},{"id":"53f4514fdabfaee4dc7fdaf6","name":"Ákos Bogdán"},{"name":"John A. ZuHone"},{"name":"Benjamin D. Oppenheimer"},{"id":"6377d7a1d49364c9ac958985","name":"Nhut Truong"},{"name":"Ildar Khabibullin"},{"name":"Fred Jennings"},{"id":"53f43564dabfaee2a1cddea0","name":"Annalisa Pillepich"},{"id":"62e4b965d9f204418d6ff7d4","name":"Joseph Burchett"},{"id":"64c099e975f2d36822be3846","name":"Christopher Carr"},{"id":"6328631c30241ae3e5a941cd","name":"Priyanka Chakraborty"},{"id":"5610327e45ce1e59620cb3ee","name":"Robert Crain"},{"id":"53f450a4dabfaeecd69d538a","name":"William Forman"},{"id":"560af5fc45cedb3397212d41","name":"Christine Jones"},{"id":"53f3a061dabfae4b34ab6760","name":"Caroline A. Kilbourne"},{"id":"53f43aa0dabfaefedbaf12da","name":"Ralph P. Kraft"},{"id":"53f42c04dabfaedf43501cc1","name":"Maxim Markevitch"},{"id":"6145ba7b9e795e1aecb0e3ad","name":"Daisuke Nagai"},{"id":"5616827a45ce1e5963a0b6ba","name":"Dylan Nelson"},{"id":"560c905d45cedb3397547e48","name":"Anna Ogorzalek"},{"name":"Scott Randall"},{"id":"53f815d4dabfae938c6fddf5","name":"Arnab Sarkar"},{"id":"53f431d6dabfaee1c0a6d500","name":"Joop Schaye"},{"id":"54488f36dabfae87b7e43252","name":"Sylvain Veilleux"},{"id":"53f432dfdabfaedd74d7c196","name":"Mark Vogelsberger"},{"id":"53f4537ddabfaedd74e22937","name":"Q. Daniel Wang"},{"id":"6131955e9e795eb8f88e9d33","name":"Irina Zhuravleva"}],"create_time":"2023-07-06T05:03:22.626Z","hashs":{"h1":"misaf","h3":"cmxm"},"id":"64a63bbad68f896efaec4688","num_citation":0,"pdf":"https:\u002F\u002Fcz5waila03cyo0tux1owpyofgoryroob.aminer.cn\u002F42\u002F19\u002F26\u002F4219263E30CE69678C9F2996A01B4658.pdf","title":"Mapping the imprints of stellar and AGN feedback in the circumgalactic\n medium with X-ray microcalorimeters","urls":["https:\u002F\u002Farxiv.org\u002Fabs\u002F2307.01259"],"venue":{},"versions":[{"id":"64a63bbad68f896efaec4688","sid":"2307.01259","src":"arxiv","year":2023}],"year":2023},{"abstract":" The Line Emission Mapper (LEM) is an X-ray Probe with with spectral resolution ~2 eV FWHM from 0.2 to 2.5 keV and effective area \u003E2,500 cm$^2$ at 1 keV, covering a 33 arcmin diameter Field of View with 15 arcsec angular resolution, capable of performing efficient scanning observations of very large sky areas and enabling the first high spectral resolution survey of the full sky. The LEM-All-Sky Survey (LASS) is expected to follow the success of previous all sky surveys such as ROSAT and eROSITA, adding a third dimension provided by the high resolution microcalorimeter spectrometer, with each 15 arcsec pixel of the survey including a full 1-2 eV resolution energy spectrum that can be integrated over any area of the sky to provide statistical accuracy. Like its predecessors, LASS will provide both a long-lasting legacy and open the door to the unknown, enabling new discoveries and delivering the baseline for unique GO studies. No other current or planned mission has the combination of microcalorimeter energy resolution and large grasp to cover the whole sky while maintaining good angular resolution and imaging capabilities. LASS will be able to probe the physical conditions of the hot phases of the Milky Way at multiple scales, from emission in the Solar system due to Solar Wind Charge eXchange, to the interstellar and circumgalactic media, including the North Polar Spur and the Fermi\u002FeROSITA bubbles. It will measure velocities of gas in the inner part of the Galaxy and extract the emissivity of the Local Hot Bubble. By maintaining the original angular resolution, LASS will also be able to study classes of point sources through stacking. For classes with ~$10^4$ objects, it will provide the equivalent of 1 Ms of high spectral resolution data. We describe the technical specifications of LASS and highlight the main scientific objectives that will be addressed. (Abridged) ","authors":[{"id":"62e48296d9f204418d69457d","name":"Ildar Khabibullin"},{"id":"53f43735dabfaee1c0aa48fe","name":"Massimiliano Galeazzi"},{"id":"53f4514fdabfaee4dc7fdaf6","name":"Akos Bogdan"},{"name":"Jenna M. Cann"},{"id":"53f4510fdabfaeee22a2032c","name":"Eugene Churazov"},{"id":"562de2e645ce1e5967b1db57","name":"Klaus Dolag"},{"id":"548c96b8dabfae8a11fb4bd7","name":"Jeremy J. Drake"},{"id":"53f450a4dabfaeecd69d538a","name":"William Forman"},{"id":"54484ee1dabfae87b7e050fb","name":"Lars Hernquist"},{"id":"53f46074dabfaee43ecdf98f","name":"Dimitra Koutroumpa"},{"id":"65abf37e8a47b674e33b0e8d","name":"Ralph Kraft"},{"name":"K. D. Kuntz"},{"id":"53f42c04dabfaedf43501cc1","name":"Maxim Markevitch"},{"id":"53f42d24dabfaec09f111238","name":"Dan McCammon"},{"id":"560c905d45cedb3397547e48","name":"Anna Ogorzalek"},{"name":"Ryan Pfeifle"},{"id":"53f43564dabfaee2a1cddea0","name":"Annalisa Pillepich"},{"id":"53f44c47dabfaedd74e062fc","name":"Paul P. Plucinsky"},{"id":"53f5ac3adabfae22bdf8045b","name":"Gabriele Ponti"},{"id":"62e485e4d9f204418d69852e","name":"Gerrit Schellenberger"},{"id":"6377d7a1d49364c9ac958985","name":"Nhut Truong"},{"id":"62e48fd0d9f204418d6ae4f6","name":"Milena Valentini"},{"id":"54488f36dabfae87b7e43252","name":"Sylvain Veilleux"},{"name":"Stephan Vladutescu-Zopp"},{"id":"53f4537ddabfaedd74e22937","name":"Q. Daniel Wang"},{"name":"Kimberly Weaver"}],"create_time":"2023-10-25T06:01:30.413Z","hashs":{"h1":"lassx","h3":"smr"},"id":"65387a42939a5f4082980730","num_citation":0,"pdf":"https:\u002F\u002Fcz5waila03cyo0tux1owpyofgoryroob.aminer.cn\u002FC4\u002F12\u002FA6\u002FC412A606CC0980C012E0BEB3D8E36011.pdf","title":"LEM All-Sky Survey: Soft X-ray Sky at Microcalorimeter Resolution","urls":["https:\u002F\u002Fopenalex.org\u002FW4387947665","https:\u002F\u002Farxiv.org\u002Fabs\u002F2310.16038"],"venue":{"info":{"name":"arXiv (Cornell University)"}},"versions":[{"id":"65387a42939a5f4082980730","sid":"2310.16038","src":"arxiv","year":2023},{"id":"6578e639939a5f408287059b","sid":"W4387947665","src":"openalex","year":2023}],"year":2023},{"abstract":"We use the single-dish radio telescope FAST to map the HI in the tidally interacting NGC 4631 group with a resolution of 3.24 $ (7 kpc), reaching a 5-$\\sigma$ column density limit of $10^{17.9}$ cm$^{-2}$ assuming a line width of 20 km s$^{-1}$. Taking the existing interferometric HI image from the HALOGAS project of WSRT as reference, we are able to identify and characterize a significant excess of large-scale, low-density, and diffuse HI in the group. This diffuse HI extends for more than 120 kpc across, and accounts for more than one fourth of the total HI detected by FAST in and around the galaxy NGC 4631. In the region of the tidal tails, the diffuse HI has a typical column density above $10^{19.5}$ cm$^{-2}$, and is highly turbulent with a velocity dispersion around 50 km s$^{-1}$. It increases in column density with the dense HI, and tends to be associated with the kinematically ``hotter'' part of the dense HI. Through simple modeling, we find that the majority of the diffuse HI in the tail region is likely to induce cooling out of the hot IGM instead of evaporating or being radiatively ionized. Given these relations of gas in different phases, the diffuse HI may represent a condensing phase of the IGM. Active tidal interactions on-going and in the past may have produced the wide-spreading HI distribution, and triggered the gas accretion to NGC 4631 through the phase of the diffuse HI.","authors":[{"id":"542c5a4edabfae2b4e20747f","name":"Jing Wang"},{"name":"Dong Yang"},{"id":"53f44f95dabfaee2a1d5915f","name":"Se–Heon Oh"},{"id":"53f44bc4dabfaee0d9bc9853","name":"L. Staveley‐Smith"},{"id":"56cb18bac35f4f3c6565e84f","name":"Jie Wang"},{"id":"53f4537ddabfaedd74e22937","name":"Q. Daniel Wang"},{"id":"53f3a1bcdabfae4b34abe4a3","name":"Kelley M. Hess"},{"id":"5433f08ddabfaebba58306a0","name":"Luis C. Ho"},{"id":"651c8e738a47b61c50d1f03e","name":"Ligang Hou"},{"name":"Yingjie Jing"},{"name":"P. Kamphuis"},{"name":"Fujia Li"},{"id":"650e88b0768b11dc72a17488","name":"Xuchen Lin"},{"id":"6531663750dee4c42274625c","name":"Ziming Liu"},{"id":"64d4e06a8a47b67785688066","name":"Li Shao"},{"id":"6325cc0d293b827d8577db3e","name":"Shun Wang"},{"name":"Meiping Zhu"}],"create_time":"2024-02-09T23:53:03.392Z","hashs":{"h1":"fictt","h3":"idpn4"},"id":"64ea264d3fda6d7f06358fb3","issn":"0004-637X","keywords":["tidal interactions","ngc","hi phase","igm"],"num_citation":0,"title":"FEASTS: IGM cooling triggered by tidal interactions through the diffuse\n HI phase around NGC 4631","urls":["https:\u002F\u002Fopenalex.org\u002FW4320914758"],"venue":{"info":{"name":"The Astrophysical Journal"}},"versions":[{"id":"64ea264d3fda6d7f06358fb3","sid":"W4320914758","src":"openalex"}],"year":2023}],"profilePubsTotal":311,"profilePatentsPage":0,"profilePatents":null,"profilePatentsTotal":null,"profilePatentsEnd":false,"profileProjectsPage":1,"profileProjects":{"success":true,"msg":"","data":null,"log_id":"2czBVm7IvAg4F6cwy4X9yb0fk7G"},"profileProjectsTotal":0,"newInfo":null,"checkDelPubs":[]}};