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Aquatic sediments generally contain low brominated flame retardant burdens, polybrominated diphenyl ethers levels nearing 1000 lg/kg have been detected near industrial concerns and publicly-owned wastewater treatment works

Brominated flame retardant concentrations and trends in abiotic media

Chemosphere, no. 2 (2006): 181-186

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摘要

BFR burdens in abiotic media have been less studied than in biota, despite their essential value as an aide to identifying sources, temporal and geographic trends and exposure routes. Many polymer products consist of several percent by weight of BFRs. Global trade in these can result in rapid and wholesale BFR movement. Loss from in-use p...更多

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简介
  • The bulk of published environmental research to date has focused on brominated flame retardant (BFR) burdens in biotic media due to concerns over detrimental health effects.
  • In 2001 98% demand for the penta-BDE commercial product was concentrated in North America (Hale et al, 2003).
  • TRI information for deca-BDE, the dominant PBDE product (TBBP-A being the only other currently listed BFR), suggests that industry-assignable emissions approximately doubled between 1988 and 2001.
重点内容
  • The bulk of published environmental research to date has focused on brominated flame retardant (BFR) burdens in biotic media due to concerns over detrimental health effects
  • BFRs exhibit low volatilities and water solubilities and are environmentally persistent. The latter property provides the potential for long-range transport, for the lower molecular weight polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)
  • In 2001 98% demand for the penta-BDE commercial product was concentrated in North America (Hale et al, 2003). Most of this was centered in the US, as the population density is greater than Canada and PBDE production is based in the US
  • Toxics Reduction Inventory (TRI) data suggest that BFR levels, e.g., in the form of fugitive dust emissions, may be significant in proximity to point sources, such as manufacturing facilities
  • The above data suggest that discharges of publicly-owned wastewater treatment works (POTWs) effluents and associated particulates to surface waters may be important PBDE sources to the environment and that the lower brominated congeners are likely more bioavailable
  • Aquatic sediments generally contain low BFR burdens, PBDE levels nearing 1000 lg/kg have been detected near industrial concerns and POTWs (Allchin et al, 1999; de Boer et al, 2003; La Guardia et al, 2004)
结果
  • On aerosol particulates and near sources the concentrations are higher and often the less volatile PBDEs, in particular BDE-209, are increasingly found to dominate (Strandberg et al, 2001; Butt et al, 2004; Farrar et al, 2004).
  • Penta-BDE-related congeners were about 100-fold higher in indoor than outdoor air at a UK university.
  • TRI data suggest that BFR levels, e.g., in the form of fugitive dust emissions, may be significant in proximity to point sources, such as manufacturing facilities.
  • Elevated burdens of penta-BDE-related congeners were detected in proximity to a North Carolina polyurethane foam manufacturing facility (Hale et al, 2002).
  • Hassanin et al (2004) observed PBDEs in rural UK surface soils to exhibit congener patterns similar to the penta-BDE product.
  • In terms of temporal trends, Kohler et al (2003) reported concentrations of penta-BDE related-congeners in Swiss sludges in 2002 were about half of those in 1993.
  • PBDE congener patterns match the penta-mixture profile and BDE-209 dominates.
  • Demand for deca-BDE is likely increasing, a temporal trend reflected in Fig. 1 for the US and recently reported for Swiss sludges (Kohler et al, 2003).
  • North (2004) recently reported on the PBDE burdens of sludge and associated effluent from a California (US) POTW.
  • The above data suggest that discharges of POTW effluents and associated particulates to surface waters may be important PBDE sources to the environment and that the lower brominated congeners are likely more bioavailable.
结论
  • BDE-209 burdens up to 4600 lg/kg have been reported on suspended particulates from Dutch surface waters, decreasing with distance from textile facilities.
  • Aquatic sediments generally contain low BFR burdens, PBDE levels nearing 1000 lg/kg have been detected near industrial concerns and POTWs (Allchin et al, 1999; de Boer et al, 2003; La Guardia et al, 2004).
  • Morris et al (2004) reported mg/kg concentrations of HBCD and TBBP-A in sediments near a UK BFR production facility.
总结
  • The bulk of published environmental research to date has focused on brominated flame retardant (BFR) burdens in biotic media due to concerns over detrimental health effects.
  • In 2001 98% demand for the penta-BDE commercial product was concentrated in North America (Hale et al, 2003).
  • TRI information for deca-BDE, the dominant PBDE product (TBBP-A being the only other currently listed BFR), suggests that industry-assignable emissions approximately doubled between 1988 and 2001.
  • On aerosol particulates and near sources the concentrations are higher and often the less volatile PBDEs, in particular BDE-209, are increasingly found to dominate (Strandberg et al, 2001; Butt et al, 2004; Farrar et al, 2004).
  • Penta-BDE-related congeners were about 100-fold higher in indoor than outdoor air at a UK university.
  • TRI data suggest that BFR levels, e.g., in the form of fugitive dust emissions, may be significant in proximity to point sources, such as manufacturing facilities.
  • Elevated burdens of penta-BDE-related congeners were detected in proximity to a North Carolina polyurethane foam manufacturing facility (Hale et al, 2002).
  • Hassanin et al (2004) observed PBDEs in rural UK surface soils to exhibit congener patterns similar to the penta-BDE product.
  • In terms of temporal trends, Kohler et al (2003) reported concentrations of penta-BDE related-congeners in Swiss sludges in 2002 were about half of those in 1993.
  • PBDE congener patterns match the penta-mixture profile and BDE-209 dominates.
  • Demand for deca-BDE is likely increasing, a temporal trend reflected in Fig. 1 for the US and recently reported for Swiss sludges (Kohler et al, 2003).
  • North (2004) recently reported on the PBDE burdens of sludge and associated effluent from a California (US) POTW.
  • The above data suggest that discharges of POTW effluents and associated particulates to surface waters may be important PBDE sources to the environment and that the lower brominated congeners are likely more bioavailable.
  • BDE-209 burdens up to 4600 lg/kg have been reported on suspended particulates from Dutch surface waters, decreasing with distance from textile facilities.
  • Aquatic sediments generally contain low BFR burdens, PBDE levels nearing 1000 lg/kg have been detected near industrial concerns and POTWs (Allchin et al, 1999; de Boer et al, 2003; La Guardia et al, 2004).
  • Morris et al (2004) reported mg/kg concentrations of HBCD and TBBP-A in sediments near a UK BFR production facility.
基金
  • In 2001 deca- accounted for over 83% of global PBDE demand, or 56 100 metric tons (MTs)
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