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(23) Typically, plastic plates are made of polypropylene, polystyrene, polycarbonate, polyvinyl chloride, or polyethylene

Paper microzone plates.

ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY, no. 15 (2009): 5990-5998

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摘要

This paper describes 96- and 384-microzone plates fabricated in paper as alternatives to conventional multi-well plates fabricated in molded polymers. Paper-based plates are functionally related to plastic well plates, but they offer new capabilities. For example, paper-microzone plates are thin (similar to 180 mu m), require small volume...更多

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简介
  • This paper describes 96- and 384-microzone plates fabricated in paper as alternatives to conventional multiwell plates fabricated in molded polymers.
  • The paper-based plates are fabricated by patterning sheets of paper, using photolithography, into hydrophilic zones surrounded by hydrophobic polymeric barriers
  • This photolithography used an inexpensive formulation photoresist that allows rapid (∼15 min) prototyping of paper-based plates.
  • These plates are compatible with conventional microplate readers for quantitative absorbance and fluorescence measurements.
  • The authors' primary objective in this work was to develop paper microzone plates as a low-cost alternative to plastic plates.
  • Paper had a key role as (i) a support for qualitative spot-tests for organic and inorganic analytical chemistry, (ii) a medium for chromatography and electrophoresis, (iii) a platform for reactive indicators such as litmus paper, and (iv) a medium for lateral flow analysis, such as dipstick immunoassays.
重点内容
  • This paper describes 96- and 384-microzone plates fabricated in paper as alternatives to conventional multiwell plates fabricated in molded polymers
  • This paper describes 96- and 384-microzone plates fabricated in paper as a new platform for bioassays; these plates are functionally related to conventional 96- and 384-well plates fabricated in plastic
  • (23) Typically, plastic plates are made of polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), polycarbonate (PC), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), or polyethylene (PE)
  • The paper plate can be stored as a physical record of the results
  • Because the paper plates are thin and flexible, the results from large numbers of paper plates could be recorded and quantified automatically using a computer and a flatbed scanner equipped with a sheet feeder
方法
  • Design of the Paper Plates

    A recent technical survey indicated that 90% of microplate users in the U.S used the 96well format exclusively; 9.6% of users used both the 96- and 384-well plates, and only 0.7% used higher well-density plates. The authors designed the paper plate to match the dimensions of a standard plastic 96- or 384-well plate for convenient reading using standard plate readers.
  • The authors designed the paper plate to match the dimensions of a standard plastic 96- or 384-well plate for convenient reading using standard plate readers.
  • In this design, every zone was independent and no fluid flowed between them: the hydrophobic barrier constrained the movement of fluids within each zone, and assays were accomplished by adding chemicals (17) Li, X.; Tian, J.; Nguyen, T.; Shen, W.
结果
  • RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

    Fabrication of Paper 96- or 384-Zone Plates. Paper-based plates were fabricated by photolithography following the pro-

    (23) Typically, plastic plates are made of polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), polycarbonate (PC), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), or polyethylene (PE).
  • Heat could shorten this period of drying, a prebake step resulted in a certain level of cross-linking of the SC photoresist, even in the absence of light.
  • This uncontrolled cross-linking of the SC photoresist decreased the hydrophilicity of the paper and, decreased the flow rate of aqueous fluids within the zones and their wettability
结论
  • The authors envision the immediate value of the paper-based 96- and

    384-zone plates to be in applications where the cost and portability of the plates are major considerations.
  • Paper-based plates may be suited for familiar, high-technology applications that require high throughput and low cost.
  • Because paper-based plates are lightweight, they could be taken into the field, and the results could be measured on-site using a camera phone and transmitted to a central laboratory; alternatively, the plates could be transported back to a central laboratory for analysis using a microplate reader.
  • The paper plate can be stored as a physical record of the results.
  • Because the paper plates are thin and flexible, the results from large numbers of paper plates could be recorded and quantified automatically using a computer and a flatbed scanner equipped with a sheet feeder
总结
  • Introduction:

    This paper describes 96- and 384-microzone plates fabricated in paper as alternatives to conventional multiwell plates fabricated in molded polymers.
  • The paper-based plates are fabricated by patterning sheets of paper, using photolithography, into hydrophilic zones surrounded by hydrophobic polymeric barriers
  • This photolithography used an inexpensive formulation photoresist that allows rapid (∼15 min) prototyping of paper-based plates.
  • These plates are compatible with conventional microplate readers for quantitative absorbance and fluorescence measurements.
  • The authors' primary objective in this work was to develop paper microzone plates as a low-cost alternative to plastic plates.
  • Paper had a key role as (i) a support for qualitative spot-tests for organic and inorganic analytical chemistry, (ii) a medium for chromatography and electrophoresis, (iii) a platform for reactive indicators such as litmus paper, and (iv) a medium for lateral flow analysis, such as dipstick immunoassays.
  • Methods:

    Design of the Paper Plates

    A recent technical survey indicated that 90% of microplate users in the U.S used the 96well format exclusively; 9.6% of users used both the 96- and 384-well plates, and only 0.7% used higher well-density plates. The authors designed the paper plate to match the dimensions of a standard plastic 96- or 384-well plate for convenient reading using standard plate readers.
  • The authors designed the paper plate to match the dimensions of a standard plastic 96- or 384-well plate for convenient reading using standard plate readers.
  • In this design, every zone was independent and no fluid flowed between them: the hydrophobic barrier constrained the movement of fluids within each zone, and assays were accomplished by adding chemicals (17) Li, X.; Tian, J.; Nguyen, T.; Shen, W.
  • Results:

    RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

    Fabrication of Paper 96- or 384-Zone Plates. Paper-based plates were fabricated by photolithography following the pro-

    (23) Typically, plastic plates are made of polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), polycarbonate (PC), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), or polyethylene (PE).
  • Heat could shorten this period of drying, a prebake step resulted in a certain level of cross-linking of the SC photoresist, even in the absence of light.
  • This uncontrolled cross-linking of the SC photoresist decreased the hydrophilicity of the paper and, decreased the flow rate of aqueous fluids within the zones and their wettability
  • Conclusion:

    The authors envision the immediate value of the paper-based 96- and

    384-zone plates to be in applications where the cost and portability of the plates are major considerations.
  • Paper-based plates may be suited for familiar, high-technology applications that require high throughput and low cost.
  • Because paper-based plates are lightweight, they could be taken into the field, and the results could be measured on-site using a camera phone and transmitted to a central laboratory; alternatively, the plates could be transported back to a central laboratory for analysis using a microplate reader.
  • The paper plate can be stored as a physical record of the results.
  • Because the paper plates are thin and flexible, the results from large numbers of paper plates could be recorded and quantified automatically using a computer and a flatbed scanner equipped with a sheet feeder
基金
  • This work was funded in part by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation under Award Number 51308 and in part by support from the Micro-Nano Fluidics Fundamentals Focus Center (MF3) at the University of California, Irvine
  • The authors acknowledge a visiting scholar fellowship from the Fundac ̃ao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo-FAPESP, Brazil (E.C.), a postdoctoral fellowship from the National Science and Engineering Research Council (NSERC) of Canada (S.J.V.), and a postdoctoral fellowship from the Damon Runyon Cancer Research Foundation (Grant DRG-1805-04) (S.T.P.). SUPPORTING INFORMATION AVAILABLE Additional information as noted in text
研究对象与分析
users: 82700
Demonstration of quantitative colorimetric correlations using a scanner or camera to image the zones and to measure the intensity of color, makes it possible to conduct assays without a microplate reader. Design of the Paper Plates

A recent technical survey indicated that 90% of microplate users in the U.S used the 96well format exclusively (within a population of 82 700 users); 9.6% of users used both the 96- and 384-well plates, and only 0.7% used higher well-density plates.21
. We designed the paper plate to match the dimensions of a standard plastic 96- or 384-well plate for convenient reading using standard plate readers

users: 82700
Design of the Paper Plates. A recent technical survey indicated that 90% of microplate users in the U.S used the 96well format exclusively (within a population of 82 700 users); 9.6% of users used both the 96- and 384-well plates, and only 0.7% used higher well-density plates.21. We designed the paper plate to match the dimensions of a standard plastic 96- or 384-well plate for convenient reading using standard plate readers

data sets: 3
A) Paper microzone plates (96-zone) made using different concentrations of SC photoresist. (B) Detail of each plate after application of 5, 10, and 15 μL of Amaranth, erioglaucine, and tartrazine mixture and Coomassie Blue Brilliant G250. Comparison of fluorescence measurements for samples of FITC-BSA read in a microplate reader using either a paper 96zone plate (b) or a plastic 96-well plate (0). The RSD for 0 nM FITCBSA (blank) was 3% for the plastic plate, and 11% for the paper plate. We plotted all the data from the three data sets in a log-log graph and fit the data using least-squares linear regressions. For the paper plate (solid line), the equation was log(y) ) 2.45 + 0.86 log(x) with r ) 0.995, while for the plastic plate (broken line) the equation was log(y) ) 0.84 + 0.95 log(x) with r ) 0.993. The negative error bars for the lowest amounts of labeled proteins were suppressed due to incompatibility with the graphing program. The log-log scale was chosen for clarity. The linear scale graphs are shown in the Supporting Information, Figure SI-2. Analytical calibration plots for Coomassie Brilliant Blue and Amaranth red in paper plates, with a layer of mineral oil applied to the zones, and plastic plates. Apparent linear regression lines (solid lines) for both dyes in the paper plates yielded the following equations: (9) Coomassie blue, log(y) ) -0.88 + 0.69 log(x), r ) 0.989, and (b) Amaranth red, log(y) ) -1.36 + 0.94 log(x), r ) 0.998. Apparent linear regression line (broken lines) yielded the following equations for both dyes in plastic plates: (0) Coomassie blue, log(y) ) -1.02 + 0.87 log(x), r ) 0.994, and (O) Amaranth red, log(y) ) -1.27 + 0.96 log(x), r ) 0.998. The log-log scale was chosen for clarity. The linear scale graphs are shown in the Supporting Information, Figure SI-3

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