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The image reconstruction by external software algorithm is done in a programmable matrix in a way that allows anti-aliased grayscale images, increasing image quality and achieving a reproducible, high dynamic range imager

The gigavision camera

ICASSP, pp.1093-1096, (2009)

被引用56|浏览30
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摘要

We propose a new image device called gigavision camera. The main differences between a conventional and a gigavision camera are that the pixels of the gigavision camera are binary and orders of magnitude smaller. A gigavision camera can be built using standard memory chip technology, where each memory bit is designed to be light sensitive...更多

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简介
  • In the GV concept, inspired by [1], the pixels are organized in programmable overlapping clusters.
  • The concept of a fix-size pixel evolves into one whereby the boundaries of the pixel may extend to the entire array with a proper but weighted differently, locally.
  • In GV, the image is reconstructed through an optimization process that involves all the pixels of the camera, mimicking the continuous, global effects of the lens [2].
  • Fig. 1 shows the overall GV concept.
  • The image reconstruction by external software algorithm is done in a programmable matrix in a way that allows anti-aliased grayscale images, increasing image quality and achieving a reproducible, high dynamic range imager [3].
重点内容
  • In the GV concept, inspired by [1], the pixels are organized in programmable overlapping clusters
  • The image reconstruction by external software algorithm is done in a programmable matrix in a way that allows anti-aliased grayscale images, increasing image quality and achieving a reproducible, high dynamic range imager [3]
  • A CMOS image sensor comprising an array of 1600 × 1200 pixels was fabricated in a standard 90nm CMOS process
结果
  • To realize a deep sub-wavelength pixel, the authors propose a 1-T pixel structure with three states [4].
  • A schematic diagram and potential diagrams of the pixel are illustrated in Fig. 2.
  • The gate voltage is biased at low voltage to accumulate photoholes generated into the floating body.
  • Medium voltage is used during the readout state to transfer the accumulated holes to the source region without any residual holes.
  • The gate is biased at high voltage to reach the reset state.
  • Simulation results, obtained with SPECTRA [5] are shown in Fig. 3.
  • Accumulation and transfer time were set to 10ns to reduce simulation times.
  • Holes are effectively accumulated in the p-region at gate voltage 0 or 0.2V even in this short accumulation time.
  • The accumulated holes are transferred to the source region, but perfect transfer is only achieved in longer time intervals.
  • The reset state is achieved properly in the simulation.
  • In Fig. 4 the theoretical response of the GV sensor is plotted as function of impinging photo intensity for different values of pixel oversampling and of activation threshold [2].
  • A CMOS image sensor comprising an array of 1600 × 1200 pixels was fabricated in a standard 90nm CMOS process.
  • A microphotograph of the chip is shown in Fig. 5.
结论
  • The die size is 2mm × 2mm and the unit pixel pitch is 0.75μm.
  • Half of pixels were combined to a fully digital readout architecture; the other half can be read out with a conventional analog architecture for test purposes.
  • Shows the digital signal path.
  • It comprises a sense amplifier and latching circuitry similar to the readout circuitry of a RAM.
  • The specifications of the chip are summarized in Tab. 1.
总结
  • In the GV concept, inspired by [1], the pixels are organized in programmable overlapping clusters.
  • The concept of a fix-size pixel evolves into one whereby the boundaries of the pixel may extend to the entire array with a proper but weighted differently, locally.
  • In GV, the image is reconstructed through an optimization process that involves all the pixels of the camera, mimicking the continuous, global effects of the lens [2].
  • Fig. 1 shows the overall GV concept.
  • The image reconstruction by external software algorithm is done in a programmable matrix in a way that allows anti-aliased grayscale images, increasing image quality and achieving a reproducible, high dynamic range imager [3].
  • To realize a deep sub-wavelength pixel, the authors propose a 1-T pixel structure with three states [4].
  • A schematic diagram and potential diagrams of the pixel are illustrated in Fig. 2.
  • The gate voltage is biased at low voltage to accumulate photoholes generated into the floating body.
  • Medium voltage is used during the readout state to transfer the accumulated holes to the source region without any residual holes.
  • The gate is biased at high voltage to reach the reset state.
  • Simulation results, obtained with SPECTRA [5] are shown in Fig. 3.
  • Accumulation and transfer time were set to 10ns to reduce simulation times.
  • Holes are effectively accumulated in the p-region at gate voltage 0 or 0.2V even in this short accumulation time.
  • The accumulated holes are transferred to the source region, but perfect transfer is only achieved in longer time intervals.
  • The reset state is achieved properly in the simulation.
  • In Fig. 4 the theoretical response of the GV sensor is plotted as function of impinging photo intensity for different values of pixel oversampling and of activation threshold [2].
  • A CMOS image sensor comprising an array of 1600 × 1200 pixels was fabricated in a standard 90nm CMOS process.
  • A microphotograph of the chip is shown in Fig. 5.
  • The die size is 2mm × 2mm and the unit pixel pitch is 0.75μm.
  • Half of pixels were combined to a fully digital readout architecture; the other half can be read out with a conventional analog architecture for test purposes.
  • Shows the digital signal path.
  • It comprises a sense amplifier and latching circuitry similar to the readout circuitry of a RAM.
  • The specifications of the chip are summarized in Tab. 1.
引用论文
  • E. R. Fossum, “What to do with sub-diffractionlimit (SDL) pixels? – a proposal for a gigapixel digital film sensor (DFS),” IEEE Workshop on Charge-Coupled Devices and Advanced Image Sensors, 214–217 (2005).
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
  • L. Sbaiz, F. Yang, E. Charbon, S. Süsstrunk, M. Vetterli, “The Gigavision Camera”, Intl. Conf. on Acustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP), 1093-1096 (2009).
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
  • F. Yang, L. Sbaiz, E. Charbon, S. Süsstrunk, and M. Vetterli, “Image Reconstruction in the Gigavision Camera”, OMNIVIS, 2212-2219 (2009).
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
  • A. Tournier, F. Roy, G.-N. Lu, B. Deschamps, “Improved Design of 1T Charge-Modulation Pixel Structure for Small-Size and Low-Dark- Current Achievements”, International Image Sensor Workshop (IISW), 315-318 (2007).
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
  • H. Mutoh, “3-D Optical and Electrical Simulation for CMOS Image Sensors”, IEEE Trans. on Electron Devices, 50(1), 19-25 (2003).
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
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