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Enrofloxacin, and its metabolite ciprofloxacin, as terrestrial environment contaminant must be monitored due to the high risk associated with their presence

Phytotoxicity to and uptake of enrofloxacin in crop plants.

Chemosphere, no. 7 (2003): 1233-1244

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摘要

Phytotoxicity of enrofloxacin on crop plants Cucumis sativus, Lactuca sativa, Phaseolus vulgaris and Raphanus sativus was determined in a laboratory model: the effect of 50, 100 and 5000 μgl−1 were evaluated after 30 days exposure by measuring post-germinative growth of primary root, hypocotyl, cotyledons and leaves. Concentrations betwee...更多

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简介
  • Intensive animal farming implies considerable drugs use, mainly antimicrobials.
  • These drugs are regulated for use as feed additives, administered as ‘‘medicated feed’’ to a large number of animals for prophylaxis or treatment of animal diseases.
  • A low percentage of the drug is absorbed by animals after oral administration, most being eliminated with faeces.
  • Animal waste is generally collected for field manuring.
重点内容
  • Intensive animal farming implies considerable drugs use, mainly antimicrobials
  • The effect of 0, 50, 100 and 5000 lg lÀ1 enrofloxacin on growth after 10, 20 and 30 days is shown in Fig. 1, as mean length of primary root, hypocotyl, cotyledon and mean number of leaves, and in Fig. 2, as
  • The effect of 0, 50, 100 and 5000 lg lÀ1 enrofloxacin on growth after 10, 20 and 30 days is shown in Fig. 3, as mean length of primary root, hypocotyl, cotyledon and mean number of leaves, and in Fig. 4, as mean length of the 1st–6th leaf, in both treated and control batches
  • Enrofloxacin, and its metabolite ciprofloxacin, as terrestrial environment contaminant must be monitored due to the high risk associated with their presence
  • Toxicity and selection of resistant strains, as in the case with other antibiotic, and damage to the genetic structure of non-target populations are among the possible effects of this hitherto unconsidered cause of contamination
方法
  • Commercial seeds of Cucumis sativus L., Lactuca sativa L., Phaseolus vulgaris L. and Raphanus sativus L. were used.
  • The use of lettuce is suggested for its high germination rate and sensitivity to contaminants, and for its low genetic variability; bean and cucumber are suggested for their sensitivity to contaminants (Fletcher et al, 1985)
  • Use of these plants takes into account their different alimentary use: the lettuceÕs leaves, the beanÕs seeds, the cucumberÕs fruit and the radishÕs tap root; in this way different drug accumulation sites can be checked.
  • Seedlings were transferred to multipurpose jars on sterile solid Murashige and Skoog medium (Sigma, Italy), with or without three nominal enrofloxacin (Bayer, Germany) concentrations, 50, 100 and 5000 lg lÀ1
结果
  • The effect of 0, 50, 100 and 5000 lg lÀ1 enrofloxacin on growth after 10, 20 and 30 days is shown, as mean length of primary root, hypocotyl, cotyledon and mean number of leaves, and, as.
  • The effect of 0, 50, 100 and 5000 lg lÀ1 enrofloxacin on growth after 10, 20 and 30 days is shown, as mean length of primary root, hypocotyl, cotyledon and mean number of leaves, and, as mean length of the 1st–6th leaf, in both treated and control batches.
结论
  • 1; 44 1; 56Phytotoxicity of enrofloxacin on plants generates both toxic effect and hormesis, related to plant drug uptake.
  • Enrofloxacin, and its metabolite ciprofloxacin, as terrestrial environment contaminant must be monitored due to the high risk associated with their presence.
  • Toxicity and selection of resistant strains, as in the case with other antibiotic, and damage to the genetic structure of non-target populations are among the possible effects of this hitherto unconsidered cause of contamination
表格
  • Table1: Cucumis sativus. Comparison (one-way ANOVA) between (panel A) plant organs and (panel B) leaves dimensions in control and treated plants after 30 days
  • Table2: Lactuca sativa. Comparison (one-way ANOVA) between (panel A) plant organs and (panel B) leaves dimensions in control and treated plants after 30 days
  • Table3: Phaseolus vulgaris. Comparison (one-way ANOVA) between (panel A) plant organs and (panel B) leaves dimensions in control and treated plants after 20 days
  • Table4: Raphanus sativus. Comparison (one-way ANOVA) between (panel A) plant organs and (panel B) leaves dimensions in control and treated plants after 30 days
  • Table5: Mean amount of enrofloxacin found in media after 30 days of plant growing under light
Download tables as Excel
基金
  • Work supported by MURST 40–60% grant and ISS
研究对象与分析
plant species: 4
A toxic effect is induced by high concentration (5000 lg lÀ1), while hormesis occurs at low concentrations (50 and 100 lg lÀ1). A continuum between toxic effect and hormesis is found in the four plant species. Both toxic effect and hormesis can be related to an efficient plant drug uptake, in the order of lg gÀ1

plant species: 4
This suggests that plants containing enrofloxacin at high tissue concentrations can partially metabolize it to ciprofloxacin, as already demonstrated in animals (Cester and Toutain, 1997). The exposure to lower concentrations of enrofloxacin (50 and 100 lg lÀ1) also causes alteration of postgerminative development but with different pathway: a continuum between toxic effect and hormesis (sensu Stebbing (1998): increased growth) was found in the four plant species. At 50 lg lÀ1 enrofloxacin, a mainly hormetic effect was observed in the hypocotyl, primary roots and leaves of Cucumis, in the cotyledon of Lactuca, in the hypocotyl and cotyledon of Raphanus

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