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Among the fullerene-based materials, the SWNTs and fullerol particles passed through the porous medium more rapidly and to a greater extent than did the n-C60

Laboratory Assessment of the Mobility of Nanomaterials in Porous Media

ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, no. 19 (2004): 5164-5169

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摘要

The production of significant quantities of engineered nanomaterials will inevitably result in the introduction of these materials to the environment. Mobility in a well-defined porous medium was evaluated for eight particulate products of nanochemistry to assess their potential for migration in porous media such as groundwater aquifers a...更多

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简介
  • Estimates of the size of the current nanotechnology market range from 30 to 45 billion dollars [1].
  • Values of the attachment efficiency calculated from data obtained from experiments with one porous medium can be applied to another porous medium of similar composition but different grain size, fluid flow rate, and porosity.
重点内容
  • Estimates of the size of the current nanotechnology market range from 30 to 45 billion dollars [1]
  • Mobility in a well-defined porous medium was evaluated for eight particulate products of nanochemistry to assess their potential for migration in porous media such as groundwater aquifers and water treatment plant filters
  • Values of the attachment efficiency calculated from data obtained from experiments with one porous medium can be applied to another porous medium of similar composition but different grain size, fluid flow rate, and porosity
  • The porous medium used in these experiments was spherical glass beads (Particle Technology Ltd., Hatton, Derbyshire, UK) in a size range of 300-425 μm, with a mean diameter of 355 μm. They were passed through U.S 50 (300 μm) and U.S 40 (425 μm) sieves, and those beads retained on the U.S 50 sieve were used as the porous medium
  • Among the fullerene-based materials, the SWNTs and fullerol particles passed through the porous medium more rapidly and to a greater extent than did the n-C60
  • At the concentrations of the fullerol particles and SWNTs used in this work, porous medium surfaces were calculated to be covered as much as 6% by these materials after 1.5 pore volumes
结果
  • The porous medium used in these experiments was spherical glass beads (Particle Technology Ltd., Hatton, Derbyshire, UK) in a size range of 300-425 μm, with a mean diameter of 355 μm.
  • Eight types of nanoparticles were studied: silica (2 sizes), anatase, ferroxane, alumoxane, fullerol, clusters of C60 referred to as n-C60, and single-wall carbon nanotubes.
  • At the concentrations of the fullerol particles and SWNTs used in this work, porous medium surfaces were calculated to be covered as much as 6% by these materials after 1.5 pore volumes.
  • In contrast with expectations based on electric double-layer interactions, this increase in attachment efficiency occurred despite an increase in surface potential as estimated from measurements of electrophoretic mobility.
  • Another means of expressing mobility can be obtained by re-arranging eq 2 to express particle mobility in terms of the distance L in a homogeneous porous medium that a suspension of nanoparticles would have to traverse to reduce their concentration to an arbitrary fraction of that initially present.
  • The authors have adopted a level of C/C0 ) 0.001 or a 3-log reduction in particle number concentration as a basis for calculating L as an index of nanoparticle mobility using values of flow, porosity, grain size, and temperature that might occur in an “ideal” groundwater aquifer(Table 1).
  • Consistent with the small values for attachment efficiency obtained for the polyhydroxylated C60 nanoparticles and surfactant-modified carbon nanotubes, comparatively high values for the mobility index are calculated for these materials.
  • The calculated mobility indices for the initial transport of fullerol and surfactant-modified carbon nanotubes in a sandy aquifer are 10 m and 14 m for SWNTs and fullerol particles, respectively.
结论
  • The authors speculate that naturally occurring polyelectrolytes such as fulvic and humic acids might create a similar enhancement in nanoparticle transport as that produced by the surfactant on the SWNTs by sorbing to the surfaces of particles and reducing attachment efficiencies through steric stabilization and increased hydrophilicity of the particle surface.
  • While the porous medium used in these experiments was uniform and tightly packed, groundwater aquifers are likely to have fractures and other heterogeneities that may greatly enhance the mobility of particles beyond the values calculated in this work.
总结
  • Estimates of the size of the current nanotechnology market range from 30 to 45 billion dollars [1].
  • Values of the attachment efficiency calculated from data obtained from experiments with one porous medium can be applied to another porous medium of similar composition but different grain size, fluid flow rate, and porosity.
  • The porous medium used in these experiments was spherical glass beads (Particle Technology Ltd., Hatton, Derbyshire, UK) in a size range of 300-425 μm, with a mean diameter of 355 μm.
  • Eight types of nanoparticles were studied: silica (2 sizes), anatase, ferroxane, alumoxane, fullerol, clusters of C60 referred to as n-C60, and single-wall carbon nanotubes.
  • At the concentrations of the fullerol particles and SWNTs used in this work, porous medium surfaces were calculated to be covered as much as 6% by these materials after 1.5 pore volumes.
  • In contrast with expectations based on electric double-layer interactions, this increase in attachment efficiency occurred despite an increase in surface potential as estimated from measurements of electrophoretic mobility.
  • Another means of expressing mobility can be obtained by re-arranging eq 2 to express particle mobility in terms of the distance L in a homogeneous porous medium that a suspension of nanoparticles would have to traverse to reduce their concentration to an arbitrary fraction of that initially present.
  • The authors have adopted a level of C/C0 ) 0.001 or a 3-log reduction in particle number concentration as a basis for calculating L as an index of nanoparticle mobility using values of flow, porosity, grain size, and temperature that might occur in an “ideal” groundwater aquifer(Table 1).
  • Consistent with the small values for attachment efficiency obtained for the polyhydroxylated C60 nanoparticles and surfactant-modified carbon nanotubes, comparatively high values for the mobility index are calculated for these materials.
  • The calculated mobility indices for the initial transport of fullerol and surfactant-modified carbon nanotubes in a sandy aquifer are 10 m and 14 m for SWNTs and fullerol particles, respectively.
  • The authors speculate that naturally occurring polyelectrolytes such as fulvic and humic acids might create a similar enhancement in nanoparticle transport as that produced by the surfactant on the SWNTs by sorbing to the surfaces of particles and reducing attachment efficiencies through steric stabilization and increased hydrophilicity of the particle surface.
  • While the porous medium used in these experiments was uniform and tightly packed, groundwater aquifers are likely to have fractures and other heterogeneities that may greatly enhance the mobility of particles beyond the values calculated in this work.
表格
  • Table1: Characteristics of Nanomaterials Used for Filtration Experiments and Calculated Particle Mobility in a System Resembling a Sandy Groundwater Aquifera nanomaterial
  • Table2: Physical and Chemical Parameters Held Constant in Experiments parameter
Download tables as Excel
基金
  • This research was supported in part by the Nanoscale Science and Engineering Initiative of the National Science Foundation under NSF Award EEC-0118007 and by the French Centre Nationale de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS)
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