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The relatively high concentration of pyrite in sediment determined by the sequential attack involving CrIIHCl extraction was confirmed by the abundance of pyrite crystals among the minerals identified by SEMand XRD

Speciation of Fe(II) and Fe(III) in Contaminated Aquifer Sediments Using Chemical Extraction Techniques.

Environmental science & technology, no. 9 (1994): 1698-1705

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摘要

Institute of Environmental Science and Engineering, Groundwater Research Centre, Technical University of Denmark, Building 115, DK-2800 Lyngby, Denmark, and Department of Geochemistry, National Geological Survey, BRGM, BP 6009, F-45060 Orl6ans Cedex 02, France

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简介
  • The attenuation of pollutants in landfill leachate plumes will depend, among other things, on the redox conditions in the plume.
  • Chemical extraction techniques for iron determination in soils and surface water sediments have been reviewed [9,10,11,12,13].
  • Removal of sulfur species by the reducing HI extraction prior to pyrite attack by Cr"HC1 seems very efficient for determining the pyrite content of sediments.
重点内容
  • The attenuation of pollutants in landfill leachate plumes will depend, among other things, on the redox conditions in the plume
  • Fresh sediment samples were collected in the leachate pollution plume downgradient from the municipal Vejen Landfill in Denmark ( I, 2, 1 4 )
  • The plume is located in a sandy glaciofluvial aquifer consistingof reddish-gray medium- to coarse-grainedsand
  • Over a period of approximately 15years, landfill leachate rich in organic matter and various organic contaminants has entered the groundwater
  • Sediment sampleswere collected from the same sandy layer hosting environments spanning the entire redox sequence (Figure 1)
  • The relatively high concentration of pyrite in sediment determined by the sequential attack involving CrIIHCl extraction was confirmed by the abundance of pyrite crystals among the minerals identified by SEMand XRD
结果
  • Ammonium oxalate is commonly used for the determination of amorphous and poorly crystalline iron oxides in soils [34,35,36] and refined to measure only the Fe(II1) extracted from lake sediments [26].
  • The authors' results (Table 5)show that ammonium oxalate extracts crystalline akageneite (P-FeOOH)and magnetite (Fes04)as seen in related studies reviewed by Borggaard [37].
  • Since aquifer sediments contain various distributions of iron oxide minerals mixed with Fe(I1)compoundsthat might dissolve during extraction, ammonium oxalate cannot be used for the determination of poorly crystalline Fe(II1) in these mixed Fe(I1)-Fe(II1) sediments.
  • Dithionite has often been used to extract the total iron oxide content from soils by reductive dissolution [27,35, 36].
  • Dithionite partly dissolves siderite and FeS (Table6)producing dissolved Fe(II),which cannot be distinguished from the Fe extracted from oxides in the reducing mixture.
  • The authors used the Ti(II1)-EDTA extraction to estimate the iron(II1)oxide content, a value that does not include the contribution from any magnetite possibly present.
  • The low fraction of Fe(II1) in the reduced sediment 1is present in the residual form [extracted by 5 M HC1 but not by Ti(II1)-EDTA] indicating that no iron(II1) oxides remain in the methanogenic envi.ronment.
  • The relatively high concentration of pyrite in sediment determined by the sequential attack involving CrIIHCl extraction was confirmed by the abundance of pyrite crystals among the minerals identified by SEMand XRD.
  • The aerobicand nitrate-reducing sediments 7-9 are rich in iron(II1) oxides extracted by the Ti(II1)-EDTA [60-
  • The Fe(II1) species in sediment 5 contribute relatively little to the oxidation capacity of this sample (Table 8; Figure 3).
结论
  • This indicates that dithionite extracts part of the Fe(I1) from this methanogenic sediment and shows that dithionite is of no use for iron(II1) oxide determination in sediments that contain both Fe(II1) and Fe(I1) forms.
  • This extraction gives an estimate of the content of amorphous iron(II1) hydroxides and reduced Fe(I1) species such as FeS and FeC03, even though the fractions are not precisely quantified.
  • A good estimate of the iron(II1) oxide content contributing to the oxidation capacity of the sediment is given by the Ti(II1)-EDTA extraction followed by the determination of the OXC.
总结
  • The attenuation of pollutants in landfill leachate plumes will depend, among other things, on the redox conditions in the plume.
  • Chemical extraction techniques for iron determination in soils and surface water sediments have been reviewed [9,10,11,12,13].
  • Removal of sulfur species by the reducing HI extraction prior to pyrite attack by Cr"HC1 seems very efficient for determining the pyrite content of sediments.
  • Ammonium oxalate is commonly used for the determination of amorphous and poorly crystalline iron oxides in soils [34,35,36] and refined to measure only the Fe(II1) extracted from lake sediments [26].
  • The authors' results (Table 5)show that ammonium oxalate extracts crystalline akageneite (P-FeOOH)and magnetite (Fes04)as seen in related studies reviewed by Borggaard [37].
  • Since aquifer sediments contain various distributions of iron oxide minerals mixed with Fe(I1)compoundsthat might dissolve during extraction, ammonium oxalate cannot be used for the determination of poorly crystalline Fe(II1) in these mixed Fe(I1)-Fe(II1) sediments.
  • Dithionite has often been used to extract the total iron oxide content from soils by reductive dissolution [27,35, 36].
  • Dithionite partly dissolves siderite and FeS (Table6)producing dissolved Fe(II),which cannot be distinguished from the Fe extracted from oxides in the reducing mixture.
  • The authors used the Ti(II1)-EDTA extraction to estimate the iron(II1)oxide content, a value that does not include the contribution from any magnetite possibly present.
  • The low fraction of Fe(II1) in the reduced sediment 1is present in the residual form [extracted by 5 M HC1 but not by Ti(II1)-EDTA] indicating that no iron(II1) oxides remain in the methanogenic envi.ronment.
  • The relatively high concentration of pyrite in sediment determined by the sequential attack involving CrIIHCl extraction was confirmed by the abundance of pyrite crystals among the minerals identified by SEMand XRD.
  • The aerobicand nitrate-reducing sediments 7-9 are rich in iron(II1) oxides extracted by the Ti(II1)-EDTA [60-
  • The Fe(II1) species in sediment 5 contribute relatively little to the oxidation capacity of this sample (Table 8; Figure 3).
  • This indicates that dithionite extracts part of the Fe(I1) from this methanogenic sediment and shows that dithionite is of no use for iron(II1) oxide determination in sediments that contain both Fe(II1) and Fe(I1) forms.
  • This extraction gives an estimate of the content of amorphous iron(II1) hydroxides and reduced Fe(I1) species such as FeS and FeC03, even though the fractions are not precisely quantified.
  • A good estimate of the iron(II1) oxide content contributing to the oxidation capacity of the sediment is given by the Ti(II1)-EDTA extraction followed by the determination of the OXC.
表格
  • Table1: Iron Species Likely To Be Found in Oxidized and Reduced Aquifers [<a class="ref-link" id="c4" href="#r4">4</a>,<a class="ref-link" id="c5" href="#r5">5</a>,<a class="ref-link" id="c6" href="#r6">6</a>]
  • Table2: General Sediment Characteristics and Groundwater Parameters Measured at Nine Locations in t h e Vejen Landfill Leachate Plume
  • Table3: Chemical Extractions Used for Quantification of Iron Species in Aquifer Sediments extractant
  • Table4: Recovery of Fe(I1) from Standard Species in Wet Extractions Designed for Fe(I1) Determination in
  • Table5: Recovery of Fe(II1) from Standard Species in Wet Extractions Designed for Fe(II1) Determination in Sediments8
  • Table6: Contributions from Fe(I1) Species on Determination of Fe(II1) in Aquifer Sediments Determined by Dithionite Method and by Ti(II1)-EDTA Extractione dithionite Fe (AAS)
  • Table7: Fe(I1) Determined in Sediments from Different Redox Environments in the Vejen Aquifer8 sediment
  • Table8: Fe(II1) Determined in Sediments from Different Redox Environments in the Contaminated Vejen Aquifer8 sediment
  • Table9: Total Speciation of Iron in Sediments from Different Redox Environments from the Contaminated Vejen Aquifer
Download tables as Excel
基金
  • The program is funded by the Danish Technical Research Council, the Technical University of Denmark, BRGM Research Program EG45, and the Commission of the European Communities
研究对象与分析
species: 5
Fe(II1)-reducingiprecipitating nitrate-reducing aerobic aerobic. Values (rgig) are the means of five species by the reducing HI extraction. Calculated as Fe(I1) in from the 5 M HCl

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