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The amplitude is used as a feedback parameter to map the topography of the surface

Nanoscale compositional mapping with gentle forces.

NATURE MATERIALS, no. 6 (2007): 405.0-411

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摘要

Microscopists have always pursued the development of an instrument that combines topography and materials properties analyses at the highest resolution. The measurement of the tiny amount of energy dissipated by a vibrating tip in the proximity of the sample surface has provided atomic force microscopes with a robust and versatile method ...更多

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简介
  • Soft and bio-inspired materials as well as biomolecules are attracting growing interest within the materials science community.
  • The transformation of phase-shift measurements into energy-dissipation values enables experimental data to be linked to materials properties such as stiffness, elasticity, viscosity or surface-adhesion energy, which in turn opens the way to a quantitative nanoscale spectroscopy compatible with technological environments[19].
重点内容
  • Soft and bio-inspired materials as well as biomolecules are attracting growing interest within the materials science community
  • The amplitude is used as a feedback parameter to map the topography of the surface
  • In Amplitude-modulation atomic force microscopy (AM-AFM), the excitation frequency is fixed at the beginning of the experiment, whereas the amplitude and the phase lag of the oscillation provide two channels to explore tip–surface conservative and dissipative
  • Box 1 AM-AFM with topography and compositional sensitivity In AM-AFM a topographic image is generated by scanning the tip across the surface while keeping the oscillating amplitude fixed (Fig. 1).The application of the virial theorem to the tip motion enables a relationship to be derived between the amplitude A and the average value of the conservative tip–surface forces 〈Fts〉
  • Topography and phase images can be combined to produce a complete three dimensional characterization of the sample surface by providing simultaneous information on structure, composition and height variations, which enables the phase behaviour of thin films to be described in terms of surface reconstructions[54]
结果
  • Box 1 AM-AFM with topography and compositional sensitivity In AM-AFM a topographic image is generated by scanning the tip across the surface while keeping the oscillating amplitude fixed (Fig. 1).The application of the virial theorem to the tip motion enables a relationship to be derived between the amplitude A and the average value of the conservative tip–surface forces 〈Fts〉
  • The phase lag between the external excitation of the vibrating probe and its response to the tip–surface interactions, referred to as phase shift, is related to the local energy dissipation on the surface[11,19,30,31,32,33,34,35,36,37,38,39,40].
  • This is about to change because recent contributions are shedding light onto the relationships between nonlinear dynamics, tip–surface forces and energy-dissipation processes during imaging[15,16,17,18,19], and new microfabrication processes are delivering AFM tips with more controllable geometries and surface properties.
  • Topography and phase images can be combined to produce a complete three dimensional characterization of the sample surface by providing simultaneous information on structure, composition and height variations, which enables the phase behaviour of thin films to be described in terms of surface reconstructions[54].
  • The sine of the phase lag between the external excitation and the tip response is directly linked to the amount of energy dissipated on the sample (equation (2) in Box 1).
  • The control and measurement of the tiny amount of energy dissipated by a vibrating tip in the proximity of the sample surface has turned phase imaging into a robust and versatile method for quantifying the morphology and some materials properties of relevant surfaces in biology, polymer science and microelectronics with sub-10-nm resolution.
  • To turn phase imaging with AFM into a multipurpose tool for topographic and compositional analysis with 1-nm spatial resolution is closely related to key technical advances in scanning probe technology, as well as progress in the fundamental understanding of the energydissipating interactions between nanoscale objects.
结论
  • Phase imaging offers nanoscale spatial resolution and high sensitivity for detecting compositional variations in native conditions, such as in air and aqueous solutions.
  • Spatial resolution and compositional sensitivity are prompting the application of phase imaging to study new materials and phenomena, in particular, when dynamic processes are involved, or the characterization of heterogeneous materials made of regions with different chemical, structural or mechanical properties.
总结
  • Soft and bio-inspired materials as well as biomolecules are attracting growing interest within the materials science community.
  • The transformation of phase-shift measurements into energy-dissipation values enables experimental data to be linked to materials properties such as stiffness, elasticity, viscosity or surface-adhesion energy, which in turn opens the way to a quantitative nanoscale spectroscopy compatible with technological environments[19].
  • Box 1 AM-AFM with topography and compositional sensitivity In AM-AFM a topographic image is generated by scanning the tip across the surface while keeping the oscillating amplitude fixed (Fig. 1).The application of the virial theorem to the tip motion enables a relationship to be derived between the amplitude A and the average value of the conservative tip–surface forces 〈Fts〉
  • The phase lag between the external excitation of the vibrating probe and its response to the tip–surface interactions, referred to as phase shift, is related to the local energy dissipation on the surface[11,19,30,31,32,33,34,35,36,37,38,39,40].
  • This is about to change because recent contributions are shedding light onto the relationships between nonlinear dynamics, tip–surface forces and energy-dissipation processes during imaging[15,16,17,18,19], and new microfabrication processes are delivering AFM tips with more controllable geometries and surface properties.
  • Topography and phase images can be combined to produce a complete three dimensional characterization of the sample surface by providing simultaneous information on structure, composition and height variations, which enables the phase behaviour of thin films to be described in terms of surface reconstructions[54].
  • The sine of the phase lag between the external excitation and the tip response is directly linked to the amount of energy dissipated on the sample (equation (2) in Box 1).
  • The control and measurement of the tiny amount of energy dissipated by a vibrating tip in the proximity of the sample surface has turned phase imaging into a robust and versatile method for quantifying the morphology and some materials properties of relevant surfaces in biology, polymer science and microelectronics with sub-10-nm resolution.
  • To turn phase imaging with AFM into a multipurpose tool for topographic and compositional analysis with 1-nm spatial resolution is closely related to key technical advances in scanning probe technology, as well as progress in the fundamental understanding of the energydissipating interactions between nanoscale objects.
  • Phase imaging offers nanoscale spatial resolution and high sensitivity for detecting compositional variations in native conditions, such as in air and aqueous solutions.
  • Spatial resolution and compositional sensitivity are prompting the application of phase imaging to study new materials and phenomena, in particular, when dynamic processes are involved, or the characterization of heterogeneous materials made of regions with different chemical, structural or mechanical properties.
基金
  • This work was financially supported by the European Commission (FORCETOOL, NMP4-CT-2004-013684). Competing financial interests The authors declare no competing financial interests
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