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Nanocomposites of platelets derived from TEGO have shown higher stiffness across all loadings and equal or lower electrical percolation thresholds than carbon black and www.MaterialsViews.com nanotube-filled nanocomposites.

Graphene and graphene oxide: synthesis, properties, and applications.

ADVANCED MATERIALS, no. 35 (2010): 3906-3924

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摘要

There is intense interest in graphene in fields such as physics, chemistry, and materials science, among others. Interest in graphene's exceptional physical properties, chemical tunability, and potential for applications has generated thousands of publications and an accelerating pace of research, making review of such research timely. He...更多

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  • Graphene is an exciting material.[1]. It has a large theoretical specific surface area (2630 m2g−1), high intrinsic mobility (200 000 cm2 v−1 s−1),[2,3] high Young’s modulus (∼1.0 TPa)[4] and thermal conductivity (∼5000 Wm−1K−1),[5] and its optical transmittance (∼97.7%) and good electrical conductivity merit attention for applications such as for transparent conductive electrodes,[6,7] among many other potential applications.
重点内容
  • Graphene is an exciting material.[1]
  • Graphene has been experimentally studied for over 40 years,[8,9,10,11,12,13,14] and measurements of transport properties in micromechanically exfoliated layers,[15] of graphene grown on (SiC),[16] largearea graphene grown on copper (Cu) substrates,[17] as well as a variety of studies involving the use of chemically modified graphene (CMG) to make new materials,[18,19,20,21] have in part led to a surge in the number of publications and in the amount of, e.g., National Science Foundation grants recently awarded in the USA.[22]
  • Large increases in Young’s modulus and a 30 °C shift in Tg at only 0.05 wt% loading of a TEGOPMMA composite were attributed to the onset of rheological percolation and to the crumpled morphology of the highly-exfoliated platelets.[208]
  • Nanocomposites of platelets derived from TEGO have shown higher stiffness across all loadings and equal or lower electrical percolation thresholds than carbon black and www.MaterialsViews.com nanotube-filled nanocomposites.[226]
  • Acid-treated and exfoliated graphite was functionalized with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) via ester linkages, yielding composites with well-dispersed graphene particles that showed a 20°C shift in Tg,[227] while silanefunctionalized expanded graphite (EG) resulted in a 35% improvement over unmodified EG-epoxy nanocomposites.[214]
结果
  • CMGs or ‘graphite nanoplatelets’ for use as a filler.[21] Polymer matrix composites with graphene-based filler include polystyrene (PS),[18,205,206,207] PMMA,[208] polyvinyl alcohol (PVA),[209,210,211] polypropylene (PP),[212,213] epoxy,[214,215,216,217] polyester,[218] silicone foam,[219] polyurethane,[220,221] poly(vinyldiene fluoride),[222] and polycarbonate.[223] To achieve large property enhancements in their nanocomposites, layered materials such as GO must be exfoliated and well dispersed in the polymer matrix.[224] Among other methods, rapid heating,[21,225] as well as ultrasonication of GO have been used extensively to produce highly-exfoliated platelets for nanocomposites; notably, themally-expanded GO(‘TEGO’) is reduced and can be use to make electrically conductive composites,[21] whereas mechanically-exfoliated GO retains its insulating chemical structure and must be reduced in a separate step.[30] These fillers can be dispersed into polymers using techniques such as solution mixing, melt blending, or in situ polymerization; of these methods, in situ polymerization might offer superior dispersion of this filler.[212]
  • These improvements are often observed at low loadings of filler due to the large interfacial area and high aspect ratio of these materials, requiring small amounts of filler to achieve percolation.[208,226] At 0.7 wt% loading, a solution-mixed PVA-graphene oxide nanocomposite showed a 76% increase in tensile strength and a 62% increase in Young’s modulus; the results were attributed to effective load transfer to the graphene oxide filler via interfacial hydrogen bonding.[209] Chemical reduction of graphene oxide in the presence of PVA generated conductive composites with a percolation threshold below 1 wt% and produced large shifts in glass transition temperature,Tg.[210] Large increases in Young’s modulus and a 30 °C shift in Tg at only 0.05 wt% loading of a TEGOPMMA composite were attributed to the onset of rheological percolation and to the crumpled morphology of the highly-exfoliated platelets.[208] Nanocomposites of platelets derived from TEGO have shown higher stiffness across all loadings and equal or lower electrical percolation thresholds than carbon black and www.MaterialsViews.com nanotube-filled nanocomposites.[226] Low loadings of exfoliated GO platelets in epoxy reduced the coefficient of thermal expansion[216] and increased the critical buckling strength versus the neat polymer.[215]
结论
  • Isocyanate-functionalized graphene oxide was mixed with PS in a solution, and subsequent reduction yielded conductive nanocomposites with an onset of electrical percolation at 0.1 vol%, consistent with some of the lowest thresholds reported, e.g., for CNT nanocomposites (Figure 13).[18] Acid-treated and exfoliated graphite was functionalized with PVA via ester linkages, yielding composites with well-dispersed graphene particles that showed a 20°C shift in Tg,[227] while silanefunctionalized expanded graphite (EG) resulted in a 35% improvement over unmodified EG-epoxy nanocomposites.[214] Covalent grafting of PS microspheres to reduced graphene oxide has been reported using emulsion polymerization.[206] Recently, growth of polymer chains from graphene oxide has been demonstrated using atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), following functionalization of the surface with initiator.
表格
  • Table1: Sheet resistances and optical transmittance of typical graphene based thin films
  • Table2: Specific surface areas and capacitance values of graphene based ultracapacitors
Download tables as Excel
基金
  • This review was prepared while concurrently working full time on grants from the NSF, DOE, ONR, DARPA, and Graphene Energy, Inc. that support primary research by the authors. Revised: March 24, 2010 Published online: June 29, 2010 [1] A
研究对象与分析
refereed articles: 225
Prior to Northwestern he was a Staff Scientist at the Molecular Physics Laboratory, SRI International and then Associate Professor of Physics at Washington University. He is a cofounder of Graphene Energy Inc., founder of Nanode, Inc., and author of 225 refereed articles in materials science, physics, mechanics, chemistry, electrochemical energy storage, and biomedical research. indicates the sub-lattice rather than the real spin of the electrons, and is usually referred to as ‘pseudospin.’

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