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Cells within a sample scrapped from the anode biofilm after 5 months of incubation produced colonies on anaerobic plates that contained acetate as the electron donor and fumarate as the electron acceptor

Selection of a variant of Geobacter sulfurreducens with enhanced capacity for current production in microbial fuel cells.

Biosensors and Bioelectronics, no. 12 (2009): 3498-3503

Cited by: 290|Views5
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Abstract

Geobacter sulfurreducens produces current densities in microbial fuel cells that are among the highest known for pure cultures. The possibility of adapting this organism to produce even higher current densities was evaluated. A system in which a graphite anode was poised at −400mV (versus Ag/AgCl) was inoculated with the wild-type strain ...More

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Introduction
  • Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have many diverse potential applications (Du et al, 2007; Logan and Regan, 2006; Rabaey and Verstraete, 2005; Lovley, 2008, Current Opinion) and which microorganisms are employed in MFCs is likely to be dependent on the application.
  • Several studies have demonstrated that the current densities of complex microbial communities in microbial fuel cells can.
  • Sulfurreducens are routinely enriched on anodes from complex microbial communities when there is high selective pressure for high rates of current production at high columbic efficiencies (Bond et al, 2002; Gregory et al, 2005; Holmes et al, 2004; Jung.
  • The current densities and columbic efficiencies of G. sulfurreducens are among the highest reported for a pure culture (Nevin et al, 2008)
Highlights
  • Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have many diverse potential applications (Du et al, 2007; Logan and Regan, 2006; Rabaey and Verstraete, 2005; Lovley, 2008, Current Opinion) and which microorganisms are employed in MFCs is likely to be dependent on the application
  • Geobacter sulfurreducens is a good choice to evaluate whether adaptation for enhanced power production is feasible because recent studies have demonstrated that organisms closely related to G. sulfurreducens are routinely enriched on anodes from complex microbial communities when there is high selective pressure for high rates of current production at high columbic efficiencies (Bond et al, 2002; Gregory et al, 2005; Holmes et al, 2004; Jung
  • Cells within a sample scrapped from the anode biofilm after 5 months of incubation produced colonies on anaerobic plates that contained acetate as the electron donor and fumarate as the electron acceptor
  • KN400 colonized graphite or glass coupons suspended in the medium much more extensively than DL1 (Fig. 6). These results demonstrate that, with the appropriate selective pressure, it is possible to recover microbial strains with enhanced capacity for current production in microbial fuel cells
  • The greater current production of strain KN400 was associated with a number of phenotypic changes in outer surface of the cell which may provide insights into the mechanisms for microbe–electrode interactions
  • The relative ease in developing strains for enhanced extracellular electron transfer with selective pressure contrasts with our previous inability to genetically engineer such large improvements in current production (Izallalen et al, 2008; M
Methods
  • For selection for improved growth on an electrode, cells were grown anaerobically in an ‘H-cell’ as previously described (Bond and Lovley, 2003).
  • The electron yield from acetate was measured in mature biofilms on anodes poised at +300 mV.
  • Cell shape and appendages were examined with transmission electron contrast microscopy after staining with 1% uranyl acetate.
  • For biofilm analysis cells were stained with LIVE/DEAD BacLight viability kit as previously described (Reguera et al, 2006) and examined by confocal scanning laser microscopy with a Leica TCS SP5 microscope.
  • Leica LAS AF software (Leica, Microsystems GmbH) was used to create XYZ projections of vertical and horizontal sections and three-dimensional representations of the biofilms
Results
  • Cells within a sample scrapped from the anode biofilm after 5 months of incubation produced colonies on anaerobic plates that contained acetate as the electron donor and fumarate as the electron acceptor.
  • Five individual colonies were selected for further study
  • Each of these colonies was restreaked on acetate–fumarate plates and isolated colonies picked.
  • All five of these lineages had 16S rRNA gene sequences that were 100% identical with the type strain of G.
  • The strain of G. sulfurreducens that served as the initial inoculum is referred to as G. sulfurreducens strain DL1 (Coppi et al, 2001)
Conclusion
  • These results demonstrate that, with the appropriate selective pressure, it is possible to recover microbial strains with enhanced capacity for current production in microbial fuel cells.
  • Further functional analysis will be required to determine which of these changes contribute most significantly to the increased current production.
  • These results demonstrate that for complex, highly regulated, poorly understood, physiological properties, selective pressure can be the superior design tool to obtain desired microorganisms
Summary
  • Introduction:

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have many diverse potential applications (Du et al, 2007; Logan and Regan, 2006; Rabaey and Verstraete, 2005; Lovley, 2008, Current Opinion) and which microorganisms are employed in MFCs is likely to be dependent on the application.
  • Several studies have demonstrated that the current densities of complex microbial communities in microbial fuel cells can.
  • Sulfurreducens are routinely enriched on anodes from complex microbial communities when there is high selective pressure for high rates of current production at high columbic efficiencies (Bond et al, 2002; Gregory et al, 2005; Holmes et al, 2004; Jung.
  • The current densities and columbic efficiencies of G. sulfurreducens are among the highest reported for a pure culture (Nevin et al, 2008)
  • Methods:

    For selection for improved growth on an electrode, cells were grown anaerobically in an ‘H-cell’ as previously described (Bond and Lovley, 2003).
  • The electron yield from acetate was measured in mature biofilms on anodes poised at +300 mV.
  • Cell shape and appendages were examined with transmission electron contrast microscopy after staining with 1% uranyl acetate.
  • For biofilm analysis cells were stained with LIVE/DEAD BacLight viability kit as previously described (Reguera et al, 2006) and examined by confocal scanning laser microscopy with a Leica TCS SP5 microscope.
  • Leica LAS AF software (Leica, Microsystems GmbH) was used to create XYZ projections of vertical and horizontal sections and three-dimensional representations of the biofilms
  • Results:

    Cells within a sample scrapped from the anode biofilm after 5 months of incubation produced colonies on anaerobic plates that contained acetate as the electron donor and fumarate as the electron acceptor.
  • Five individual colonies were selected for further study
  • Each of these colonies was restreaked on acetate–fumarate plates and isolated colonies picked.
  • All five of these lineages had 16S rRNA gene sequences that were 100% identical with the type strain of G.
  • The strain of G. sulfurreducens that served as the initial inoculum is referred to as G. sulfurreducens strain DL1 (Coppi et al, 2001)
  • Conclusion:

    These results demonstrate that, with the appropriate selective pressure, it is possible to recover microbial strains with enhanced capacity for current production in microbial fuel cells.
  • Further functional analysis will be required to determine which of these changes contribute most significantly to the increased current production.
  • These results demonstrate that for complex, highly regulated, poorly understood, physiological properties, selective pressure can be the superior design tool to obtain desired microorganisms
Funding
  • This research was supported by the Office of Science (BER), U
  • HY was partially supported by the Korean Research Foundation Grant funded by the Korean Government (MOEHRD) KFR-2007-357-C00104
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