We report the fabrication of paper-based microfluidic devices in nitrocellulose membrane by wax printing for protein immobilization related applications
Fabrication and characterization of paper-based microfluidics prepared in nitrocellulose membrane by wax printing.
ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY, no. 1 (2010): 329-335
Paper-based microfluidics is a promising technology to develop a simple, low-cost, portable, and disposable diagnostic platform for resource-limited settings. Here we report the fabrication of paper-based microfluidic devices in nitrocellulose membrane by wax printing for protein immobilization related applications. The fabrication proces...更多
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- Paper-based microfluidics is a promising technology to develop a simple, low-cost, portable, and disposable diagnostic platform for resource-limited settings.
- The authors report the fabrication of paper-based microfluidic devices in nitrocellulose membrane by wax printing for protein immobilization related applications.
- It is an ideal platform to develop low-cost, portable diagnostic devices for resource-limited regions and remote settings
- It has gained more and more attention recently.[10,11,12,13,14].
- Dungchai et al reported the first demonstration of electrochemical detection for paper-
- Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian, People’s Republic of China, and Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People’s Republic of China
- We report the fabrication of paper-based microfluidic devices in nitrocellulose membrane by wax printing for protein immobilization related applications
- The fabrication parameters like printing mode and baking time were optimized, and performances of the wax-patterned nitrocellulose membrane such as printing resolution, protein immobilization, and sample purification capabilities were characterized in this report
- We believe the wax-patterned nitrocellulose membrane will enhance the capabilities of paper microfluidic devices and bring new applications in this field
- Microfluidic devices prepared in paper have several attractive features such as low cost, ease of use, portability, and disposability
- (1) Fabrication: Whitesides and co-workers pioneered the field by patterning the chromatography paper through photolithography. They produced paper microfluidic devices with photoresist SU8 for simultaneous detection of glucose and protein.[1,2]. They extended this method to fabricate threedimensional microfluidic devices in layered paper and tape, which are quite suitable for use in distributed healthcare and environmental screening.
- Three different brands of NC membrane (0.45 μm pore size) were purchased from PALL (U.S.A.), Amersham (Amersham Biosciences, Pharmacia, U.S.A.), and Whatman (Protran, GE, U.S.A.), respectively.
- The baking equipment is an oven from Shanghai Permanent Science and Technology Company (PH-030A, China).
- Human IgG, goat antihuman IgG (g-hIgG), and FITC-labeled goat antihuman IgG were obtained from Boruide Company (Dalian, China).
- Bovine serum albumin (BSA) was purchased from Roche (Switzerland).
- Silver enhancer kit (SE-100) was purchased from Sigma (U.S.A.).
- Deionized (DI) water was supplied by Wahaha Company (Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China).
- All the chemicals were used as received without further purification
- Fabrication of Paper Microfluidics Devices in NC Membrane.
- (The detailed descriptions about the choice of NC membrane, printing mode, and baking time optimization can be found in the Supporting Information, Figure S3.) The whole production process can be finished within 10 min without use of organic solvents.
- The use of the wax-printing method to fabricate paper-based microfluidic devices in an NC membrane owns several merits such as an easy production process, fast production speed, minimal material cost, and no use of organic solvents.
- It can be adapted to produce paper microfluidic devices in NC membrane at a large scale
- The authors introduced the fabrication of paper microfluidic devices in NC membrane by a wax-printing method.
- Due to the high proteinbinding capability of the NC membrane, paper microfluidic devices in the NC membrane will facilitate protein immobilization related applications like bioactive paper sensor,[11,12,13,14] dot ELISA, protein array, and paper microzone plates. In addition, the waxpatterned NC membrane offers more flexibility and capability in sample manipulation over untreated NC membrane owing to the confinement of wax microstructures.
- The authors believe it will open new possibilities and bring broad applications in clinical diagnosis, food safety inspection, and environmental screening
- This research was supported by the National Nature Science Foundation of China (No 0635030), Chinese National Programs for High Technology Research and Development (863 Program, 2006AA020201), Key Project of Chinese National Programs for Fundamental Research and Development (973 Program, Nos. 2007CB714505 and 2007CB714507), the 11st Five Years Key Programs for Science and Technology Development of China (No 2006BAD12B03-01), and the Knowledge Innovation Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (KJCX2-YW-H18)
- 330 Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 82, No. 1, January 1, 2010
- 332 Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 82, No. 1, January 1, 2010 the average grayscale values within the reaction zones (Supporting Information Figure S2).
- 334 Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 82, No. 1, January 1, 2010 results (Figure 4B) showed that when the pipetting volume exceeds 4 μL, the uniformity of the reaction zone can be ensured. Thus, the wax-patterning method here can be used for fabrication of low density of a protein array with uniform intensity. Besides, different sizes and designs (shown in Figure 4C) can also be made with our method. In comparison with the traditional plotting and pipetting method, which can only generate round patterns, this method can generate different patterns, such as squares, triangles, pentagons, hexagons, etc. So the wax patterning in the NC membrane can also be treated as a flexible plotting method.