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Previous studies of carbon nanotubes electrodes have suffered from low surface area and chemical impurities hindering their performance

Extracting the full potential of single-walled carbon nanotubes as durable supercapacitor electrodes operable at 4 V with high power and energy density.

ADVANCED MATERIALS, no. 35 (2010): E235-+

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摘要

Supercapacitor electrodes fabricated from single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) are shown to be capable of durable operation at 4 V, exceeding the operating voltage limit of activated carbon electrodes (AC, 3 V), while delivering significantly higher energy and power (see figure). Dual exploitation of SWNTs as combined electrodes and cur...更多

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简介
  • Supercapacitors are electrochemical energy storage systems that store energy directly and physically as charge, whereas batteries, for example Li-ion cells, store energy in chemical reactants capable of generating charge.[1].
  • CNT electrodes have achieved notable energy and power performance (7 Wh kg−1, 20 kW kg−1),[8] they have enabled new functionalities such as flexible[9] and transparent[10] supercapacitors.
  • By fabricating electrodes from SWNTs with high carbon purity (99.98%), exclusive SWNT selectivity (>99%), negligible carbonaceous impurity (<2% amorphous carbon),[12] and near-ideal specific surface area (1300 m2 g−1),[13,14] the authors achieved operation at a higher voltage (4 V) while maintaining durable full charge–discharge cyclability, with an energy density (94 Wh kg−1, 47
重点内容
  • Supercapacitors are electrochemical energy storage systems that store energy directly and physically as charge, whereas batteries, for example Li-ion cells, store energy in chemical reactants capable of generating charge.[1]
  • Nanostructured carbon nanotubes (CNTs) composites[11] have shown exceptionally high capacitance (100 F g−1) at high discharge rate (77 A g−1). Each of these studies has shown advantageous individual properties of CNTs for supercapacitors, a comprehensive demonstration of their full potential as electrodes meeting all relevant criteria for practical devices has yet to be presented
  • Through such evaluation can the true potential of CNT electrodes for supercapacitors be known
  • Previous studies of CNT electrodes have suffered from low surface area and chemical impurities hindering their performance
  • In the work reported here, we made supercapacitor electrodes solely from the purest as-grown SWNTs available to achieve the full potential of CNT electrodes
  • For the SWNT cell without MCC, the electrodes account for 26% of the total device weight, achieving a much higher device performance with an energy density of 17 Wh kg−1 with a maximum power density rating of 24 kW kg−1
结果
  • The higher operating voltage range of the SWNT electrodes is attributed to its purity, that is, no conducting agents or binders or surface functional groups.
  • The unvarying capacitance of SWNT electrodes with increasing discharge rates means fast ion transport, high power capability.
  • High voltage operation and low internal resistance provided a higher maximum discharge power rating for the SWNT electrodes with MCC (210 kW kg−1) compared to without MCC
  • This test is more severe than typical lifetime studies performed at half-depth discharge; still the SWNT electrodes showed excellent durability, as demonstrated by the small decline in capacitance (3.6% with or without MCC).
  • The authors have compared the energy density and maximum power density of these SWNT electrodes to those of other reported CNT electrodes (Figure 4b).
  • Lowdensity plasma-treated multiwalled CNTs used as electrodes with an ionic liquid electrolyte[29] have shown high performance at 4 V; the charge/discharge cycles were limited to the range from 2 V to 4 V and no lifetime performance has been reported yet.
  • 4 V operation of the SWNT electrode presented in this study achieves a higher performance than most other CNT-based supercapacitors.[8,9,22,25,26,27,28,29] c) When the entire device is considered, the SWNT device without metal current-collectors is at the cusp of bridging the energy gap between commercial supercapacitors and batteries.
结论
  • For the SWNT cell without MCC, the electrodes account for 26% of the total device weight, achieving a much higher device performance with an energy density of 17 Wh kg−1 with a maximum power density rating of 24 kW kg−1.
  • SWNT electrodes with MCC would be the preferred choice because of their lower internal resistance higher energy efficiency and power.
  • Durable operation with a range of 4 V was made possible by the monolithic chemical composition of the SWNT electrode, that is, the absence of surface functional groups, conducting agents, and binders.
总结
  • Supercapacitors are electrochemical energy storage systems that store energy directly and physically as charge, whereas batteries, for example Li-ion cells, store energy in chemical reactants capable of generating charge.[1].
  • CNT electrodes have achieved notable energy and power performance (7 Wh kg−1, 20 kW kg−1),[8] they have enabled new functionalities such as flexible[9] and transparent[10] supercapacitors.
  • By fabricating electrodes from SWNTs with high carbon purity (99.98%), exclusive SWNT selectivity (>99%), negligible carbonaceous impurity (<2% amorphous carbon),[12] and near-ideal specific surface area (1300 m2 g−1),[13,14] the authors achieved operation at a higher voltage (4 V) while maintaining durable full charge–discharge cyclability, with an energy density (94 Wh kg−1, 47
  • The higher operating voltage range of the SWNT electrodes is attributed to its purity, that is, no conducting agents or binders or surface functional groups.
  • The unvarying capacitance of SWNT electrodes with increasing discharge rates means fast ion transport, high power capability.
  • High voltage operation and low internal resistance provided a higher maximum discharge power rating for the SWNT electrodes with MCC (210 kW kg−1) compared to without MCC
  • This test is more severe than typical lifetime studies performed at half-depth discharge; still the SWNT electrodes showed excellent durability, as demonstrated by the small decline in capacitance (3.6% with or without MCC).
  • The authors have compared the energy density and maximum power density of these SWNT electrodes to those of other reported CNT electrodes (Figure 4b).
  • Lowdensity plasma-treated multiwalled CNTs used as electrodes with an ionic liquid electrolyte[29] have shown high performance at 4 V; the charge/discharge cycles were limited to the range from 2 V to 4 V and no lifetime performance has been reported yet.
  • 4 V operation of the SWNT electrode presented in this study achieves a higher performance than most other CNT-based supercapacitors.[8,9,22,25,26,27,28,29] c) When the entire device is considered, the SWNT device without metal current-collectors is at the cusp of bridging the energy gap between commercial supercapacitors and batteries.
  • For the SWNT cell without MCC, the electrodes account for 26% of the total device weight, achieving a much higher device performance with an energy density of 17 Wh kg−1 with a maximum power density rating of 24 kW kg−1.
  • SWNT electrodes with MCC would be the preferred choice because of their lower internal resistance higher energy efficiency and power.
  • Durable operation with a range of 4 V was made possible by the monolithic chemical composition of the SWNT electrode, that is, the absence of surface functional groups, conducting agents, and binders.
表格
  • Table1: Attributes of SWNT and AC electrodes and their impact on supercapacitor performance
Download tables as Excel
基金
  • A.I. acknowledges financial support from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (Monbukagakusho), Government of Japan
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