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The data from UF time-depending fouling runs indicated that the EOM had the most significant impact on membrane fouling followed by algogenic organic matter, AHA and tannic acid

Assessing PAC contribution to the NOM fouling control in PAC/UF systems.

Water Research, no. 5 (2010): 1636-1644

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摘要

This paper investigates the powdered activated carbon (PAC) contribution to the fouling control by natural organic matter (NOM) in PAC/UF hybrid process, as well as the foulant behaviour of the PAC itself. Solutions of NOM surrogates (humic acids, AHA, and tannic acid, TA) and AOM/EOM (algogenic organic matter/extracellular organic matter...更多

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简介
  • Natural organic matter (NOM) negatively impacts the efficiency of several water treatment processes, is the major precursor of disinfection by-products, and is responsible for tastes, odours and bacterial re-growth in the distribution system.
  • NOM is usually not significantly removed by ultrafiltration (UF), but is a major contributor to membrane fouling, which is one of the critical issues in membrane technology application for water and wastewater treatment.
  • NOM fouling mechanisms are gel formation, cake formation, pore blockage and pore constriction.
  • Foulants smaller than the membrane pores may adsorb on the porous surface and lead to pore constriction, while larger components may block the pore entrances and contribute to cake or gel formation on the membrane surface (Costa et al, 2006)
重点内容
  • Natural organic matter (NOM) negatively impacts the efficiency of several water treatment processes, is the major precursor of disinfection by-products, and is responsible for tastes, odours and bacterial re-growth in the distribution system
  • Concentration–time-depending fouling runs were performed with single-solute solutions of AHA and tannic acid (TA), and with an AHA and TA mixture to investigate the individual and combined effects of hydrophobic high molar mass and relatively hydrophilic moderate molar mass NOM fractions on the UF membrane fouling
  • These results were biased by an artefact developed during the concentration runs, that accounted for ca. half of the overall flux decline exhibited with these NOM solutions, throughout the entire WRR range tested
  • This study investigated the powdered activated carbon (PAC) contribution to the NOM fouling control in PAC/UF systems, as well as the foulant behaviour of the PAC itself on the reversible and irreversible fouling of a hydrophilic UF membrane
  • The data from UF time-depending fouling runs indicated that the EOM had the most significant impact on membrane fouling followed by algogenic organic matter (AOM), AHA and TA
  • The M. aeruginosa EOM had a bimodal distribution with 55% greater than 30 kDa and 38% smaller than 1 kDa
  • UF concentration–time-depending runs with 5 mg/L PAC Norit SA-UF at 0.5 m/s and 1 m/s cross-flow velocity showed that the UF membrane effectively retained the fine PAC particles, whereas PAC did not affect the permeate flux of the hydrophilic membrane
方法
  • Humic acids are mixed compounds and several molar mass values have been reported for AHA: 3070, 4100, 3000–11,000, 14,500 Da (Yamada et al, 2000) and a small fraction above 50 kDa (Hong and Elimelech, 1997).
  • The DOC concentration and the UV absorbance were both measured on filtered samples (0.45 mm acrodisks), and TA and AHA concentrations in single-solute solutions were computed from calibration curves against UV215nm and UV254nm, respectively.
  • The nature of NOM was assessed through UV254nm absorbance and SUVA parameter, computed by UV254nm/DOC
结果
  • 80% (TA and TA þ AHA) at 90% WRR (Fig. 2, left).
  • These results were biased by an artefact developed during the concentration runs, that accounted for ca.
  • For AHA and TA, UV254nm rejections far exceeded the TOC rejections, revealing that the UV254nm absorbing compounds are preferentially removed.
  • The higher removal of AOM compared to EOM is probably associated with the presence of more hydrophobic compounds in the former fraction, which explains the PAC-driven improvement of TOC rejection.
  • PAC was not able to adsorb the highly hydrophilic compounds of EOM and as such did not improve the membrane reversible fouling
结论
  • This study investigated the PAC contribution to the NOM fouling control in PAC/UF systems, as well as the foulant behaviour of the PAC itself on the reversible and irreversible fouling of a hydrophilic UF membrane.
  • UF concentration–time-depending runs with 5 mg/L PAC Norit SA-UF at 0.5 m/s and 1 m/s cross-flow velocity showed that the UF membrane effectively retained the fine PAC particles, whereas PAC did not affect the permeate flux of the hydrophilic membrane.
  • Both laminar velocities studied were unable to avoid the deposition of a loose and highly porous PAC cake on the membrane surface, and there is no advantage in using the least cost-effective (1 m/s) velocity
表格
  • Table1: Characteristics of the NOM solutions
Download tables as Excel
基金
  • Special thanks are also addressed to Aguas do Algarve, S.A. (Portugal) for partially funding this project. references Adham, S., Snoeyink, V., Clark, M., Bersillon, J.L., 1991
研究对象与分析
algal species: 4
1.0 corresponding to a dominance of the hydrophilic fraction (57% or more) over the hydrophobic fraction of NOM (26%). Henderson et al (2008) characterised the EOM extracted from four algal species, including M. aeruginosa, during the exponential and the stationary growth phases. They concluded that EOM was dominated by hydrophilic polysaccharides and hydrophobic proteins

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