Some bus drivers were found to smoke while driving, cigarette smoking revealed no effect on in-cabin PM2.5 level
Exposure levels of particulate matter in long-distance buses in Taiwan.
Indoor air, no. 3 (2009): 234-242
This study investigated the passenger exposure to particulate matter (PM) in long-distance buses in Taiwan. PM and CO(2) were measured in thirty buses traveling between Taipei and Tainan. The results indicated that average in-cabin PM levels were below the guidelines or standards suggested by Taiwan and other countries. Cigarette smoking ...更多
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- Transportation vehicles are indispensable in daily life.
- The time spent in transportation vehicles daily may range from several minutes to several hours.
- In a study of commuters in Taipei, Taiwan, Wu (2005) reported that exposure to PM10, PM2.5, and PM1.0 was highest in those commuting by bus.
- Short-term exposure to PM is associated with increased hospital admission and mortality for cardiovascular illnesses as well as stroke (Dockery et al, 1993; Downs et al, 2007; Pope and Dockery, 2006; Pope et al, 2002).Given the above findings, more research efforts are needed to clarify the health effects in bus commuters
- Transportation vehicles are indispensable in daily life
- The arithmetic means of PM10, PM2.5, and CO2 levels were all lower than the indoor air quality (IAQ) guidelines set by the Taiwan EPA (PM10: 150 lg/ m3 – 24 h; PM2.5: 100 lg/m3 – 24 h; CO2: 1000 ppm – 24 h) (Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration, 2005)
- This study investigated in-cabin particulate matter (PM) in long-distance buses traveling between two cities along the west coast of Taiwan
- Levels of particulate matter in long-distance buses countries, which indicates that the potential adverse health effect of people expose to such levels is insignificant
- Some bus drivers were found to smoke while driving, cigarette smoking revealed no effect on in-cabin PM2.5 level
- As exposure to high PM level is known to be associated with increased morbidity and mortality (Pope and Dockery, 2006), lowering exposure to in-cabin PM is essential for the health of passengers and especially for bus drivers who frequently work long hours
- Sampling strategy
Five bus companies providing passenger transportation service between Tainan City in southern Taiwan and Taipei City in the north were analyzed.
- Levels of particulate matter in long-distance buses traveling on the highway, drove on local streets again after exiting the highway to get to the terminal.
- These long-distance buses usually stopped for passenger boarding and alighting while on local streets in the departure and arrival cities, respectively.
- To obtain values closer to true PM10 and PM2.5 values from DustTrak, all readings from the DustTrak aerosol monitor were calibrated against a model 1400a TEOM
- Results and discussion
Levels of in-cabin pollutants
Table 1 summarizes the hourly average concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, and CO2 obtained for the 30 measurement days, and Figure 1 shows a box-andwhisker plot of the in-cabin PM10, PM2.5, and CO2 to which passengers were exposed as well as relevant regulations or guidelines.
- The arithmetic means of PM10, PM2.5, and CO2 levels were all lower than the IAQ guidelines set by the Taiwan EPA (PM10: 150 lg/ m3 – 24 h; PM2.5: 100 lg/m3 – 24 h; CO2: 1000 ppm – 24 h) (Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration, 2005).
- Compared with the guidelines or standards set by Hong Kong (Hong Kong Environmental N AM s.d. GM g.s.d Min PM10 173.
- Protection Department, 2003), USA (US Environmental Protection Agency, 2008) and World Health Organization (WHO, 2005), the exposure of long-distance bus passengers in Taiwan to PM and CO2 is apparently acceptable
- Some bus drivers were found to smoke while driving, cigarette smoking revealed no effect on in-cabin PM2.5 level.
- As exposure to high PM level is known to be associated with increased morbidity and mortality (Pope and Dockery, 2006), lowering exposure to in-cabin PM is essential for the health of passengers and especially for bus drivers who frequently work long hours.
- Feasible approaches to lowering in-cabin CO2 and PM concentrations include increasing the air exchange rate and installing filters with high PM removal efficiency in ventilation system
- Table1: Summary of personal exposure to in-cabin PM10, PM2.5, and CO2
- Table2: Comparison of in-cabin PM levels with other studies
- Table3: Pearson correlation coefficients for the variables associated with the in-cabin log-transformed PM10, PM2.5, and CO2 levels
- This study found that in-cabin CO2 level was positively associated with the number of passenger (P < 0.01), i.e. CO2 level increased with the increasing passenger number (Figure 2)
Taiwan EPA(8 h-CO2): 1000. CO2 (n = 30). (n = 30)
CO2 (n = 30). (n = 30). (n = 30)
(n = 30). (n = 30). Study This study
Smoking Non-Times of. (n = 8) smoking window window (n = 22). opened = 8 opened > 8 (n = 20)
(n = 8) smoking window window (n = 22). opened = 8 opened > 8 (n = 20). Total (n = 30)
opened = 8 opened > 8 (n = 20). Total (n = 30). than eight times is significantly greater than those in the buses that opened window only at toll stations (P < 0.05)
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