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Processes considered are uptake from soil, gaseous deposition, volatilization from leaves, transformation and degradation, and growth

Generic one-compartment model for uptake of organic chemicals by foliar vegetation.

ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, no. 9 (1996): 2333-2338

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摘要

A differential mass-balance equation for the uptake of organic chemicals into the aerial plant compartment from soil and air is derived. Processes considered are uptake from soil, gaseous deposition, volatilization from leaves, transformation and degradation, and growth. An analytical solution is developed. Chemical data needed are K-OW, ...更多

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简介
  • A differential mass-balance equation for the uptake of organic chemicals into the aerial plant compartment from soil and air is derived.
  • Processes considered are uptake from soil, gaseous deposition, volatilization from leaves, transformation and degradation, and growth.
  • Chemical data needed are KOW,KAW,and reaction rate constants.
  • This gives a ‘one-compartment-model’consisting of one equation for the calculation of uptake into above-ground plants.
重点内容
  • Processes considered are uptake from soil, gaseous deposition, volatilization from leaves, transformation and degradation, and growth
  • Plant properties are typical for grass and green fodder
  • Calculations for 2,3,7,8-TCDD, and the comparison to a recentlytested numerical four-compartment model shows the applicability of the mass-balance approach
  • The equation could be incorporated into existing multimedia and soil transport models and may be useful for the hazard assessment of contaminated soils
  • Uptake of chemicals into vegetation is a major pathway for toxic substances into the food chain leading to human beings
结果
  • The equation requires the same chemical input parameters as those used in multimedia models, namely, KOW, KAW, and reaction rate constants.
  • Estimates of averagevalues for the conductance g are as follows: Lower boundary: cuticle is comparatively impermeable; uptake mainly via stomata [vapors, approximate when log KoW- log KAW< 5 (1811;conductance g is approximately 0.001-0.0001 mls, depending on plant species and environmental conditions.
  • Metabolism and photodegradation rate constants and l p are not calculated but must be supplied from experiments,literature,or externalestimationroutines.
  • +change of chemicals mass in the aerial plant parts = flux from soil via xylem to the shoots Nxy(eq 3) f gaseous flux fromlto air NA photodegradation - metabolism .
  • Input Data Bromacil (Data from ref 6); for Additional Data See Table 2 log Kow KAW rate constant, AM CW(soil solution) leaf area
  • Mass (g) volume (m3) transpiration duration of experiment (d) growth rate constant, 1~(d- ’I
  • A1 is loss by volatilization from leaves to air: a, = (0.0825 m2 x m/s)/(3.37 x IO’ x 9.66 x m3)= 2.5 x IO-’s-l a2 is loss by metabolism plus dilution by growth:
  • When growth is exponential and the ratios ANLand Q/VL are assumed to be constant, it follows for the change of the concentration with time that
  • Shoot mass shoot volume, V ( m 3 ) leaf area, A (m2) lipid content, LP(g/g) water content, WP(g/g) transpiration, 0 time to harvest (d) growth rate constant, LG(d-') soil organic carbon content, oc (%)
  • The complex dynamic behavior of a chemical in the soil-plant-air system is reduced to one equation.
结论
  • A direct comparison to the experimental results is not possible since metabolites were not calculated and concentrations in fruits,stem,and leaves are not given explicitly.
  • The PLANTX model allows varying input and plant properties, growth, and phloem flux and calculates concentrations in roots, stem, leaves, and fruits.
  • The parameters for the proposed equation can be selected ,e.g.,contamination can be from air or soil.
  • TSCF, and transfer velocities could be replaced by more plant-specific values.
总结
  • A differential mass-balance equation for the uptake of organic chemicals into the aerial plant compartment from soil and air is derived.
  • Processes considered are uptake from soil, gaseous deposition, volatilization from leaves, transformation and degradation, and growth.
  • Chemical data needed are KOW,KAW,and reaction rate constants.
  • This gives a ‘one-compartment-model’consisting of one equation for the calculation of uptake into above-ground plants.
  • The equation requires the same chemical input parameters as those used in multimedia models, namely, KOW, KAW, and reaction rate constants.
  • Estimates of averagevalues for the conductance g are as follows: Lower boundary: cuticle is comparatively impermeable; uptake mainly via stomata [vapors, approximate when log KoW- log KAW< 5 (1811;conductance g is approximately 0.001-0.0001 mls, depending on plant species and environmental conditions.
  • Metabolism and photodegradation rate constants and l p are not calculated but must be supplied from experiments,literature,or externalestimationroutines.
  • +change of chemicals mass in the aerial plant parts = flux from soil via xylem to the shoots Nxy(eq 3) f gaseous flux fromlto air NA photodegradation - metabolism .
  • Input Data Bromacil (Data from ref 6); for Additional Data See Table 2 log Kow KAW rate constant, AM CW(soil solution) leaf area
  • Mass (g) volume (m3) transpiration duration of experiment (d) growth rate constant, 1~(d- ’I
  • A1 is loss by volatilization from leaves to air: a, = (0.0825 m2 x m/s)/(3.37 x IO’ x 9.66 x m3)= 2.5 x IO-’s-l a2 is loss by metabolism plus dilution by growth:
  • When growth is exponential and the ratios ANLand Q/VL are assumed to be constant, it follows for the change of the concentration with time that
  • Shoot mass shoot volume, V ( m 3 ) leaf area, A (m2) lipid content, LP(g/g) water content, WP(g/g) transpiration, 0 time to harvest (d) growth rate constant, LG(d-') soil organic carbon content, oc (%)
  • The complex dynamic behavior of a chemical in the soil-plant-air system is reduced to one equation.
  • A direct comparison to the experimental results is not possible since metabolites were not calculated and concentrations in fruits,stem,and leaves are not given explicitly.
  • The PLANTX model allows varying input and plant properties, growth, and phloem flux and calculates concentrations in roots, stem, leaves, and fruits.
  • The parameters for the proposed equation can be selected ,e.g.,contamination can be from air or soil.
  • TSCF, and transfer velocities could be replaced by more plant-specific values.
表格
  • Table1: Table 1
  • Table2: Input Data Environment (Normalized to 1 m2)
Download tables as Excel
研究对象与分析
plant species: 7
The empiric parameters used in this equation (Km, TSCF) are derived from a small number of experiments. The TSCF of nitrobenzene for seven plant species differed less than 10%(17)and was close to the results of eqs 4a and 4b. But for chemicals with high log KO", no experimental data are available

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