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Database systems were proposed as a solution to the problem of shared access to heterogeneous files created by multiple autonomous applications in a centralized environment

Interoperability of multiple autonomous databases

ACM Comput. Surv., no. 3 (1990): 267-293

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摘要

Database systems were a solution to the problem of shared access to heterogeneous files created by multiple autonomous applications in a centralized environment. To make data usage easier, the files were replaced by a globally integrated database. To a large extent, the idea was successful, and many databases are now accessible through lo...更多

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简介
  • Database systems were proposed as a solution to the problem of shared access to heterogeneous files created by multiple autonomous applications in a centralized environment.
  • Multidatabase systems will need to manage different types of databases.
  • The authors present one approach to the management of multiple databases without a global schema-the multidatabase approach [Litwin et al 19821.
  • The multidatabase approach [Litwin 1984, 1985; Litwin and Abdellatif 1986, 1987; Litwin and Vigrer 1989; Litwin et al 1982, 19871 assumes that the user needs to access multiple databases without the benefit of a global schema.
重点内容
  • Database systems were proposed as a solution to the problem of shared access to heterogeneous files created by multiple autonomous applications in a centralized environment
  • In Section 3, we argue that major operational relational database systems have evolved toward multidatabase capabilities
  • Through IS0 and SQL Access standards, they will be able to cooperate in the processing of multidatabase queries
  • The new assumptions about the lack of global knowledge and about user autonomy will influence the design of future systems deeply
  • New principles will emerge at all levels, from logical data definition and manipulation functions to concurrency control and transaction management, as well as physical implementation and distributed execution
结果
  • A multidatabase language must allow users to define and manipulate a collection of autonomous databases in a nonprocedural way.
  • Other features of a multidatabase language allow for autonomy while supporting cooperation between the administrators, especially over the data definition.
  • The new features that MSQL proposes are as follows: Composition of multiple databases into explicitly named multidatabases: A multidatabase name constitutes the scope for data manipulations.
  • Aside from these aspects, the differences between the approaches are only in the terms used for similar concepts and in the aspects of multiple database management put forward as key ramifications assuming the absence of a global schema.
  • This concept differs from a multidatabase and a federated database by the existence of a global conceptual schema.
  • The latter concept designates any type of system for the management of heterogeneous databases, including systems with a global schema.
  • The relevant features of Ingres/Star are as follows: The system allows the definition of any number of external multidatabase schemas over a collection of SQL databases, currently, only Ingres databases.
  • The system does not allow the user to directly formulate multidatabase queries to actual databases or, more precisely, to their export schemas.
  • It allows the formulation of elementary multidatabase queries, including updates, where database names can be used as prefixes to resolve name conflicts.
  • The concept of Standard Format Data Units (SFDUs) [Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems 1987; Mark and Roussopoulos 1987a] that carry their own universally interpretable type objects is a possible solution to information interchange in a multidatabase.
结论
  • The authors describe self-describing and self-documenting database systems and how they support interchange of information in a multidatabase.
  • In a multidatabase with schema design autonomy, large collections of base and derived type objects can be expected, and a more systematic approach to the management of data dictionaries is necessary.
  • A multidatabase with self-describing and self-documenting databases can interchange information through SFDUs [Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems 19871.
  • New principles will emerge at all levels, from logical data definition and manipulation functions to concurrency control and transaction management, as well as physical implementation and distributed execution
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