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Apple cultivars different from Lobo have shown a lower proportion of soluble dietary fiber: Macintosh have shown only 17% soluble dietary fiber, and Summered, Aroma, Ingrid Marie, Cox Orange, Belle de Boskoop, Mutzu, and Jonagold presented an average of 31%

Comparative contents of dietary fiber, total phenolics, and minerals in persimmons and apples.

JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD CHEMISTRY, no. 2 (2001): 952-957

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摘要

Dietary fibers, major phenolics, main minerals, and trace elements in persimmons and apples were analyzed and compared in order to choose a preferable fruit for an antiatherosclerotic diet. Fluorometry and atomic absorption spectrometry following microwave digestion were optimized for the determination of major phenolics and minerals. Tot...更多

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简介
  • At the beginning of a new millenium atherosclerosis is the principal cause of death in Western civilization [1].
  • The insoluble part is related to both water absorption and intestinal regulation, whereas the soluble fraction may influence the lipid metabolism in decreasing the levels of LDL-C and is associated with the reduction of cholesterol in blood [12, 13]
  • Both fractions complement each other, and a 70-50% insoluble and 30-50% soluble dietary fiber is considered a well balanced proportion [9, 12, 14].
  • Some investigators have demonstrated in vitro [15, 16] and in epidemiological studies [17] that nutritional antioxidants and phenolics are able to prevent the oxidation of LDL-C and to delay the development of atherosclerosis
重点内容
  • At the beginning of a new millenium atherosclerosis is the principal cause of death in Western civilization [1]
  • Suni et al [38] reported a 26.8% difference in the content of total dietary fiber between Belie de Boskoop and other cultivars. Dietary fibers of both persimmons and apples were higher in their peels than in whole fruits and pulps (Table 1, P < 0.05)
  • Apple variety Lobo is poor in dietary fiber compared with other apple varieties
  • Apple cultivars different from Lobo have shown a lower proportion of soluble dietary fiber: Macintosh have shown only 17% soluble dietary fiber [28], and Summered, Aroma, Ingrid Marie, Cox Orange, Belle de Boskoop, Mutzu, and Jonagold presented an average of 31% [38]
  • Apple variety Lobo has a lower content of total dietary fiber but a better proportion of soluble fraction, which is more important from a physiological point of view
  • These properties are attributed to its water-soluble dietary fiber and polyphenols
方法
  • All reagents were of analytical grade and were purchased from Sigma Chemical Co. All reagents were of analytical grade and were purchased from Sigma Chemical Co
  • In this investigation were used Israeli seedless persimmons (Diospyros kaki L.
  • These fruits were purchased from the same farmer, and each type of the fruit was of the same ripeness
结果
  • Soluble, and insoluble dietary fibers in whole persimmons, their pulps, and peels were significantly higher than in whole apples, pulps, and peels (Table 1, P < 0.002-0.0005).
  • Suni et al [38] reported a 26.8% difference in the content of total dietary fiber between Belie de Boskoop and other cultivars
  • Dietary fibers of both persimmons and apples were higher in their peels than in whole fruits and pulps (Table 1, P < 0.05).
  • Apple cultivars different from Lobo have shown a lower proportion of soluble dietary fiber: Macintosh have shown only 17% soluble dietary fiber [28], and Summered, Aroma, Ingrid Marie, Cox Orange, Belle de Boskoop, Mutzu, and Jonagold presented an average of 31% [38].
  • When dietary fiber was determined according to a modified Uppsala method, a lower content of the total dietary fiber in whole apples (1.8 g/100 g) was found due to the coprecipitation of simple sugars with the fiber polysaccharides when ethanol was added to recover the fiber [38]
结论
  • It was shown in the recent studies that persimmon improves lipid metabolism in rats fed diets containing cholesterol [29,30,31].
  • The increase of TC and LDL-C in the EG fed diet supplemented with persimmon was statistically not significant (P for both <0.1)
  • The results of these experiments show that diets fortified with dry persimmon improve lipid levels and exert an antioxidant effect.
  • It was shown that persimmon possesses hypolipidemic and antioxidant properties that are evident when whole persimmon or its parts are added to the diet of rats fed cholesterol.
  • The authors' present results (Tables 1 and 2) demonstrate that hypolipidemic properties can be explained by the higher presence of major phenolics and fibers in peel than in whole fruits
总结
  • Introduction:

    At the beginning of a new millenium atherosclerosis is the principal cause of death in Western civilization [1].
  • The insoluble part is related to both water absorption and intestinal regulation, whereas the soluble fraction may influence the lipid metabolism in decreasing the levels of LDL-C and is associated with the reduction of cholesterol in blood [12, 13]
  • Both fractions complement each other, and a 70-50% insoluble and 30-50% soluble dietary fiber is considered a well balanced proportion [9, 12, 14].
  • Some investigators have demonstrated in vitro [15, 16] and in epidemiological studies [17] that nutritional antioxidants and phenolics are able to prevent the oxidation of LDL-C and to delay the development of atherosclerosis
  • Methods:

    All reagents were of analytical grade and were purchased from Sigma Chemical Co. All reagents were of analytical grade and were purchased from Sigma Chemical Co
  • In this investigation were used Israeli seedless persimmons (Diospyros kaki L.
  • These fruits were purchased from the same farmer, and each type of the fruit was of the same ripeness
  • Results:

    Soluble, and insoluble dietary fibers in whole persimmons, their pulps, and peels were significantly higher than in whole apples, pulps, and peels (Table 1, P < 0.002-0.0005).
  • Suni et al [38] reported a 26.8% difference in the content of total dietary fiber between Belie de Boskoop and other cultivars
  • Dietary fibers of both persimmons and apples were higher in their peels than in whole fruits and pulps (Table 1, P < 0.05).
  • Apple cultivars different from Lobo have shown a lower proportion of soluble dietary fiber: Macintosh have shown only 17% soluble dietary fiber [28], and Summered, Aroma, Ingrid Marie, Cox Orange, Belle de Boskoop, Mutzu, and Jonagold presented an average of 31% [38].
  • When dietary fiber was determined according to a modified Uppsala method, a lower content of the total dietary fiber in whole apples (1.8 g/100 g) was found due to the coprecipitation of simple sugars with the fiber polysaccharides when ethanol was added to recover the fiber [38]
  • Conclusion:

    It was shown in the recent studies that persimmon improves lipid metabolism in rats fed diets containing cholesterol [29,30,31].
  • The increase of TC and LDL-C in the EG fed diet supplemented with persimmon was statistically not significant (P for both <0.1)
  • The results of these experiments show that diets fortified with dry persimmon improve lipid levels and exert an antioxidant effect.
  • It was shown that persimmon possesses hypolipidemic and antioxidant properties that are evident when whole persimmon or its parts are added to the diet of rats fed cholesterol.
  • The authors' present results (Tables 1 and 2) demonstrate that hypolipidemic properties can be explained by the higher presence of major phenolics and fibers in peel than in whole fruits
表格
  • Table1: Total, Soluble, and Insoluble Fibers in Whole Persimmons and Apples, Their Pulps, and Peels (Grams per 100 g of Fresh Fruit)a whole fruit pulp
  • Table2: Major Phenolics in Whole Persimmons and Apples, Their Pulps, and Peels (Milligrams per 100 g of Fresh Fruit)a whole fruit pulp
  • Table3: Main Minerals and Trace Elements in Whole Persimmons and Apples, Their Pulps, and Peelsa whole fruit pulp
Download tables as Excel
基金
  • Total, soluble, and insoluble dietary fibers, total phenols, epicatechin, gallic and p-coumaric acids, and concentrations of Na, K, Mg, Ca, Fe, and Mn in whole persimmons, their pulps, and peels were significantly higher than in whole apples, pulps, and peels (P < 0.01-0.0025)
  • Total, soluble, and insoluble dietary fibers in whole persimmons, their pulps, and peels were significantly higher than in whole apples, pulps, and peels (Table 1, P < 0.002-0.0005)
  • Applesauce contains 3339% less fiber than an unpeeled apple [28]
  • Protocatechuic, ferulic, and vanillic acids have no significant differences between apples and persimmons (Table 2, P < 0.1-0.15)
  • Gallic and pcoumaric acids and epicatechin in whole persimmons, their pulps, and peels were significantly higher than in whole apples, pulps, and peels (Table 2, P < 0.010.0025)
  • (P < 0.01-0.0125). For persimmons such a relationship was found only for ferulic and gallic acids (P < 0.010.025)
  • In whole persimmons the contents of Fe (Table 3, P < 0.40-0.47) and Mn (Table 3, P < 0.025-0.005) were higher than in apples
  • The contents of Na, K, and Ca were significantly higher in persimmon peels than in whole fruits and pulps (P < 0.0125-0.005)
  • The contents of Fe, Zn, and Cu in apple peels were significantly higher than in whole fruit (P < 0.01)
  • Mn and Cu in persimmon and apple (P < 0.005) peels were higher than in fruit and pulp
  • A significant increase in plasma total cholesterol (TC) and LDL-C was found only in CG (P < 0.0005)
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