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Friendly, and can be scaled up readily. Shape selectivity in this case relies on the formation of a network of wormlike micelles within an organic solvent phase that acts as a soft template for metal growth

Synthesis of platinum nanowire networks using a soft template.

NANO LETTERS, no. 12 (2007): 3650-3655

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摘要

Platinum nanowire networks have been synthesized by chemical reduction of a platinum complex using sodium borohydride in the presence of a soft template formed by cetyltrimethylammonium bromide in a two-phase water-chloroform system. The interconnected polycrystalline nanowires possess the highest surface area (53 +/- 1 m(2)/g) and electr...更多

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简介
  • Platinum nanowire networks have been synthesized by chemical reduction of a platinum complex using sodium borohydride in the presence of a soft template formed by cetyltrimethylammonium bromide in a two-phase water-chloroform system.
  • This two-phase aqueous and chloroform mixture with added CTAB was chosen because previous studies have suggested that wormlike micelles, which may form interconnected networks, are likely formed under these conditions.
  • Nano Lett., Vol 7, No 12, 2007 form an interconnected micellar network, was infinite while the resistance of the putative wormlike inverse micellar network composed of 40 mM CTAB/water/chloroform was determined to 3.0 MΩ.
重点内容
  • Platinum nanowire networks have been synthesized by chemical reduction of a platinum complex using sodium borohydride in the presence of a soft template formed by cetyltrimethylammonium bromide in a two-phase water-chloroform system
  • We report the synthesis of platinum nanowire networks based on a modified phase-transfer method, similar to that originally developed by Brust et al in the 1990s
  • Environmentally friendly, and can be scaled up readily. Shape selectivity in this case relies on the formation of a network of wormlike micelles within an organic solvent phase that acts as a soft template for metal growth
  • Evans et al.33and Smith and co-workers[34] showed that bicontinuous micellar structures formed in a region of the ternary phase diagram of didodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DDAB)/ water/alkane system, a system similar to the cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)/water/ chloroform system used to form wormlike micelles in the present work
  • When CTAB is left out of our reaction system and the platinum complex stays in the aqueous phase, no Pt nanowire networks should be obtained due to the absence of the soft template
  • This experiment demonstrates that the presence of soft CTAB templates is crucial for the preparation of the platinum nanowire network, consistent with the suggested formation mechanism
结果
  • At stirring rates of 1000 rpm and larger, large numbers of small chloroform droplets are created providing increased surface area to allow more efficient diffusion of borohydride into the micelles and correspondingly increased rates of reduction of Pt complex throughout the surfactant micellar network.
  • When 10 mL of 1 mM K2PtCl4 was used with a stirring rate of 1000 rpm, the platinum nanowire network shown in Figure 8a was obtained.
  • The structure of the Pd nanowire network is significantly different, the small morphological differences in the Pt and Pd networks may result from differences in the template structure due to differing interactions of the Pt and Pd complexes with micellar interface or perhaps from differing growth habits of the two metals.
  • When CTAB is left out of the reaction system and the platinum complex stays in the aqueous phase, no Pt nanowire networks should be obtained due to the absence of the soft template.
  • This experiment demonstrates that the presence of soft CTAB templates is crucial for the preparation of the platinum nanowire network, consistent with the suggested formation mechanism.
  • Polycrystalline platinum nanowire networks with uniform wire diameters were synthesized by using a network of wormlike micelles as a soft template for metal growth.
  • This study provides a clear demonstration of the use of soft micellar networks as templates for the successful synthesis of interconnecting metal nanowires that accurately reflect the micellar network structure.
结论
  • The structural features of these platinum networks can be controlled to some degree, including the diameter of the wires and the size of knobs formed at intersecting points.
  • A possible formation mechanism (Figure 1) based on soft templating by the micellar networks contained in chloroform droplets is proposed.
  • Supporting Information Available: Experimental details, plots of frequency versus cross-section diameter of the platinum nanowire networks, TEM and SEM image of the Pd nanowire networks, TEM images of the spherical and cylindrical Pt nanoparticles, and TEM images of the aggregated Pt nanoparticles produced in the absence of CTAB.
总结
  • Platinum nanowire networks have been synthesized by chemical reduction of a platinum complex using sodium borohydride in the presence of a soft template formed by cetyltrimethylammonium bromide in a two-phase water-chloroform system.
  • This two-phase aqueous and chloroform mixture with added CTAB was chosen because previous studies have suggested that wormlike micelles, which may form interconnected networks, are likely formed under these conditions.
  • Nano Lett., Vol 7, No 12, 2007 form an interconnected micellar network, was infinite while the resistance of the putative wormlike inverse micellar network composed of 40 mM CTAB/water/chloroform was determined to 3.0 MΩ.
  • At stirring rates of 1000 rpm and larger, large numbers of small chloroform droplets are created providing increased surface area to allow more efficient diffusion of borohydride into the micelles and correspondingly increased rates of reduction of Pt complex throughout the surfactant micellar network.
  • When 10 mL of 1 mM K2PtCl4 was used with a stirring rate of 1000 rpm, the platinum nanowire network shown in Figure 8a was obtained.
  • The structure of the Pd nanowire network is significantly different, the small morphological differences in the Pt and Pd networks may result from differences in the template structure due to differing interactions of the Pt and Pd complexes with micellar interface or perhaps from differing growth habits of the two metals.
  • When CTAB is left out of the reaction system and the platinum complex stays in the aqueous phase, no Pt nanowire networks should be obtained due to the absence of the soft template.
  • This experiment demonstrates that the presence of soft CTAB templates is crucial for the preparation of the platinum nanowire network, consistent with the suggested formation mechanism.
  • Polycrystalline platinum nanowire networks with uniform wire diameters were synthesized by using a network of wormlike micelles as a soft template for metal growth.
  • This study provides a clear demonstration of the use of soft micellar networks as templates for the successful synthesis of interconnecting metal nanowires that accurately reflect the micellar network structure.
  • The structural features of these platinum networks can be controlled to some degree, including the diameter of the wires and the size of knobs formed at intersecting points.
  • A possible formation mechanism (Figure 1) based on soft templating by the micellar networks contained in chloroform droplets is proposed.
  • Supporting Information Available: Experimental details, plots of frequency versus cross-section diameter of the platinum nanowire networks, TEM and SEM image of the Pd nanowire networks, TEM images of the spherical and cylindrical Pt nanoparticles, and TEM images of the aggregated Pt nanoparticles produced in the absence of CTAB.
基金
  • This work was partially supported by the Office of Basic Energy of Sciences, U.S Department of Energy
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