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Soils obtained from background locations can give useful information about the influence of regional atmospheric sources, long-range atmospheric transport processes, compound retention, partitioning and fate processes in the environment

PAHs in background soils from Western Europe: influence of atmospheric deposition and soil organic matter.

Chemosphere, no. 9 (2008): 1596-1602

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摘要

The levels and distribution of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in soil samples from background locations in the UK and Norway, to investigate their spatial distribution and the controlling environmental factors. Concentrations ranged between 42 and 11200μgkg−1 (geometric mean 640μgkg−1) and 8.6 and 1050μgkg−1 (150...更多

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简介
  • Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of ubiquitous environmental contaminants, produced primarily as a result of incomplete combustion from predominantly anthropogenic sources including fossil fuel, biofuel, and vegetation fires.
  • The natural soils of the UK and Norway are high in soil organic matter (SOM) or total organic carbon (TOC), which has a key role to play in the environmental partitioning, storage and longevity of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) like PAHs (Grathwohl and Kleineidam, 2000; Semple et al, 2003).
  • The mixture and level of PAHs in background soils is a balance between cumulative atmospheric inputs, affected by their gas/ particle partitioning and LRAT potential, their retention in soil and loss processes.
重点内容
  • Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of ubiquitous environmental contaminants, produced primarily as a result of incomplete combustion from predominantly anthropogenic sources including fossil fuel, biofuel, and vegetation fires
  • Soils obtained from background locations can give useful information about the influence of regional atmospheric sources, long-range atmospheric transport (LRAT) processes, compound retention, partitioning and fate processes in the environment
  • The natural soils of the UK and Norway are high in soil organic matter (SOM) or total organic carbon (TOC), which has a key role to play in the environmental partitioning, storage and longevity of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) like PAHs (Grathwohl and Kleineidam, 2000; Semple et al, 2003)
  • The mixture and level of PAHs in background soils is a balance between cumulative atmospheric inputs, affected by their gas/ particle partitioning and LRAT potential, their retention in soil and loss processes
  • The Norwegian soils are mainly influenced by LRAT, rather than localized deposition from sources, suggesting that in Norway the partitioning between TOC and PAHs is a dominant process in the soils of higher TOC content
  • black carbon (BC) can be emitted from combustion sources with a burden of associated higher molecular weight PAHs, and PAHs emitted in such form might be expected to be cotransported through the atmosphere to be deposited in the soils (Lohmann et al, 2000)
结果
  • The Norwegian grassland soils generally had a lower PAH content than the forest soils; this was not case for the UK samples.
  • The higher UK values are likely to be influenced by generally greater proximity to PAH sources, resulting in greater atmospheric emissions and subsequent deposition.
  • The relationship between PAH concentrations and soil TOC were examined by correlation analysis.
  • Overall no correlation was found between concentration and TOC for the 4-, 5- and 6-ring PAHs. Other factors, such as proximity to sources, land use, influence of wet deposition etc.
  • When the sample set is divided by country, significant correlations (r = 0.82***, 0.46*, 0.53** and 0.48** for the 3-, 4-, 5- and 6-ring PAHs respectively) were observed with TOC in the Norwegian soils, but not in the UK soils.
  • The Norwegian soils are mainly influenced by LRAT, rather than localized deposition from sources, suggesting that in Norway the partitioning between TOC and PAHs is a dominant process in the soils of higher TOC content.
  • BC can be emitted from combustion sources with a burden of associated higher molecular weight PAHs, and PAHs emitted in such form might be expected to be cotransported through the atmosphere to be deposited in the soils (Lohmann et al, 2000).
  • Closer examination of the relationship between BC and PAH concentrations did show positive correlations in the UK-woodland soils, but not in the grassland soils (Fig. 3).
结论
  • The high TOC/BC ratios in Norwegian soils may result in PAH partitioning into the substantial SOM pool (Gustafsson et al, 1997; Cornelissen et al, 2006).
  • These observations suggest that background soil PAH concentrations in Europe appear most strongly affected by proximity to sources and the likelihood of enhanced deposition.
  • Atmospheric sources and partitioning between gas and aerosol phases during LRAT will affect the likelihood of a BC-PAHs relationship being observed in soils.
总结
  • Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of ubiquitous environmental contaminants, produced primarily as a result of incomplete combustion from predominantly anthropogenic sources including fossil fuel, biofuel, and vegetation fires.
  • The natural soils of the UK and Norway are high in soil organic matter (SOM) or total organic carbon (TOC), which has a key role to play in the environmental partitioning, storage and longevity of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) like PAHs (Grathwohl and Kleineidam, 2000; Semple et al, 2003).
  • The mixture and level of PAHs in background soils is a balance between cumulative atmospheric inputs, affected by their gas/ particle partitioning and LRAT potential, their retention in soil and loss processes.
  • The Norwegian grassland soils generally had a lower PAH content than the forest soils; this was not case for the UK samples.
  • The higher UK values are likely to be influenced by generally greater proximity to PAH sources, resulting in greater atmospheric emissions and subsequent deposition.
  • The relationship between PAH concentrations and soil TOC were examined by correlation analysis.
  • Overall no correlation was found between concentration and TOC for the 4-, 5- and 6-ring PAHs. Other factors, such as proximity to sources, land use, influence of wet deposition etc.
  • When the sample set is divided by country, significant correlations (r = 0.82***, 0.46*, 0.53** and 0.48** for the 3-, 4-, 5- and 6-ring PAHs respectively) were observed with TOC in the Norwegian soils, but not in the UK soils.
  • The Norwegian soils are mainly influenced by LRAT, rather than localized deposition from sources, suggesting that in Norway the partitioning between TOC and PAHs is a dominant process in the soils of higher TOC content.
  • BC can be emitted from combustion sources with a burden of associated higher molecular weight PAHs, and PAHs emitted in such form might be expected to be cotransported through the atmosphere to be deposited in the soils (Lohmann et al, 2000).
  • Closer examination of the relationship between BC and PAH concentrations did show positive correlations in the UK-woodland soils, but not in the grassland soils (Fig. 3).
  • The high TOC/BC ratios in Norwegian soils may result in PAH partitioning into the substantial SOM pool (Gustafsson et al, 1997; Cornelissen et al, 2006).
  • These observations suggest that background soil PAH concentrations in Europe appear most strongly affected by proximity to sources and the likelihood of enhanced deposition.
  • Atmospheric sources and partitioning between gas and aerosol phases during LRAT will affect the likelihood of a BC-PAHs relationship being observed in soils.
表格
  • Table1: Geometric means of PAH concentrations with range in the UK and Norwegian soils (lg kgÀ1 soil, dry weight soil)*
Download tables as Excel
基金
  • Financial support from Korea for JJN’s work in Lancaster is greatly appreciated
  • The EU project AQUATERRA also provided financial support to work at Lancaster University
研究对象与分析
data: 41
An elemental analyzer (Carlo Erba, Italy) was used for the TOC analysis after the samples were treated with HCl. The detection limit of the analyzer was 4.9 lg for C, measured from the long-term running average (n = 41) of the blank, plus three times the standard deviation of the blank. The BC content was determined with the chemothermal oxidation method (Gustafsson et al, 1997)

samples: 12
Quality control. For every twelve samples, a laboratory blank and a duplicate sample were incorporated in the analytical procedure. Method detection limits were derived from the blanks and quantified as three times the standard deviation of the mean concentration of the blanks

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