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The data collected by these methods are in reciprocal space and need to be analyzed with varying mathematical operations to construct the information in real space

Small-angle X-ray scattering of polymers.

CHEMICAL REVIEWS, no. 6 (2001): 1727-1761

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摘要

Benjamin Chu obtained his B.S. degree, magna cum laude, from St. Norbert College and his Ph.D. degree in Physical Chemistry from Cornell University. He was a postdoctoral student with the late Professor Peter J. W. Debye for four years before he started his academic career at the University of Kansas. In 1968, he moved to the State Univer...更多

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简介
  • Benjamin Chu obtained his B.S. degree, magna cum laude, from St. Norbert College and his Ph.D. degree in Physical Chemistry from Cornell University.
  • One is the microfocus synchrotron SAXS technique, and the other is the coherent scattering or photon correlation studies using highintensity SAXS to investigate dynamic processes in polymers
  • Each of these subjects is under rapid development, which may deserve an independent review later.
  • The coupling of additional variables could help in the interpretation of SAXS/WAXD results of more complex polymer systems
重点内容
  • Benjamin Chu obtained his B.S. degree, magna cum laude, from St
  • One is the microfocus synchrotron SAXS technique, and the other is the coherent scattering or photon correlation studies using highintensity SAXS to investigate dynamic processes in polymers. Each of these subjects is under rapid development, which may deserve an independent review later
  • It is suffice to mention that the descriptions and the original references have been presented in several excellent monographs.[3,4,5,6,7]
  • SAXS/WAXD experiments are often coupled with other physical techniques, such as laser light scattering, Raman spectroscopy, thermal analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and different forms of rheological techniques
  • The principles for the scattering techniques, which involve the interaction of radiation with matter, are the same
  • The data collected by these methods are in reciprocal space and need to be analyzed with varying mathematical operations to construct the information in real space
结果
  • In the amorphous or semicrystalline state, the multilayer monochromator can provide adequate energy resolution on the order of 0.1-1% and can increase the power density of the incident X-ray beam by a factor of 10-100, when compared with conventional crystal monochromators that have energy resolutions often better than 0.01%, though mostly not essential for SAXS of polymers.
结论
  • The scattering techniques using light, neutrons, and X-rays are extremely useful to study the structure, size, and shape of large molecules such as polymers in solids, liquids, and solutions with dimensions from micrometers to Angstroms.
  • The data collected by these methods are in reciprocal space and need to be analyzed with varying mathematical operations to construct the information in real space.
  • Very often the solution of the transformation from reciprocal space to real space is not unique and some modeling approach has to be carried out to extract the structural information.
  • Many dynamic experiments on transient properties that were not possible before can be carried out in real time and/or in situ
表格
  • Table1: Advantages of Synchrotron X-rays (from a bending magnet source) for SAXS and WAXD
Download tables as Excel
基金
  • The authors gratefully acknowledge support of the work on the X-ray scattering of polymers and related topics by agencies of the Federal Government, including the Department of Energy (DEFG0286ER45237.016 and DEFG0299ER45760), the National Science Foundation (Polymers Program, DMR9984102), the U.S Army Research Office (DAAD190010319), and the National Human Genome Research Institute (6R0 1HG0138606)
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