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The adsorption and desorption isotherms were different for each pharmaceutical in the two different soil types

Fate and mobility of pharmaceuticals in solid matrices.

Chemosphere, no. 8 (2005): 1034-1044

Cited by: 283|Views19
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Abstract

The sorption and mobility of six pharmaceuticals were investigated in two soil types with different organic carbon and clay content, and in bacterial biomass (aerobic and anaerobic). The pharmaceuticals examined were carbamazepine, propranolol, diclofenac sodium, clofibric acid, sulfamethoxazole and ofloxacin. The sorption experiments wer...More

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Introduction
  • Pharmaceuticals have been extensively used in the last decades in large quantities and are incompletely absorbed and metabolised by the human organism.
  • The unutilized portion of the pharmaceuticals is discarded to the environment through urine and faeces ending up in the raw sewage (Hirsch et al, 1999).
  • The argument that the pharmaceuticals concentration in the receiving waters is too low to have an impact should be reconsidered, since the continuous discharge of generally persistent xenobiotics in the environment will result in their accumulation increasing their.
Highlights
  • Pharmaceuticals have been extensively used in the last decades in large quantities and are incompletely absorbed and metabolised by the human organism
  • Since many pharmaceuticals are compounds very recalcitrant to biological or abiotic degradation (Stamatelatou et al, 2003), their presence in the raw sewage may have further implications, such as affecting the performance of a sewage treatment plant (STP) due to possible toxicity to microorganisms or exertion of a population selection pressure, affecting marine life leading to bioaccumulation and contaminating ground water and food crops
  • The aerobic sludge was taken from the University of Patras STP and contained 3.7–5.4 g lÀ1 total suspended solids (TSS) and 2.8–3.8 g lÀ1 volatile suspended solids (VSS), with the exception of the test done with propranolol hydrochloride, where TSS were 13.3 g lÀ1 and VSS 9.7 g lÀ1
  • The adsorption and desorption isotherms were different for each pharmaceutical in the two different soil types (Fig. 1)
  • The values of KF and KD decreased in the following order: ofloxacin > propranolol > diclofenac > carbamazepine > sulfamethoxazole > clofibric acid
  • A hysteresis phenomenon was more severe in this soil type, indicating strong irreversible interactions between the compound molecule and the soil particles
Methods
  • Two types of soil were used: soil type 1 and soil type 7 according to the classification of Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Test Guideline 106.
  • The aerobic sludge was taken from the University of Patras STP and contained 3.7–5.4 g lÀ1 total suspended solids (TSS) and 2.8–3.8 g lÀ1 volatile suspended solids (VSS), with the exception of the test done with propranolol hydrochloride, where TSS were 13.3 g lÀ1 and VSS 9.7 g lÀ1.
Results
  • The adsorption and desorption isotherms were different for each pharmaceutical in the two different soil types (Fig. 1).
  • The experimental data were fitted quite well by Freundlich isotherms, as indicated by the very high correlation coefficient values (r > 0.99), but they can be fitted to linear isotherms without significant error since the correlation.
  • Ce coefficients were high (r > 0.94) for the linear isotherm case.
  • The low desorption coefficient of clofibric acid indicates that it was the one most released from the soil, while
Conclusion
  • Adsorption and desorption of pharmaceuticals on various solid matrices were studied, applying the OECD test guideline 106.
  • The experimental data for both adsorption and desorption fitted quite satisfactorily to Freundlich isotherms, as indicated by the high correlation coefficient values (r > 0.99).
  • A hysteresis phenomenon was more severe in this soil type, indicating strong irreversible interactions between the compound molecule and the soil particles.
  • The mobility of the pharmaceuticals in soil, and their potential for contaminating groundwaters, is shown to depend on (a) the amount of drug applied, (b) the intensity of the ‘‘rain’’ events and (c) the soil type
Tables
  • Table1: Pharmaceuticals tested in this study
  • Table2: Soil properties
  • Table3: Conditions for the analysis of the pharmaceuticals in HPLC-UV
  • Table4: Isotherms parameter values for the pharmaceuticals adsorbed (ads) or desorbed (des) in soil type 7 (high organic content)
  • Table5: Isotherm parameter values for the pharmaceuticals adsorbed (ads) or desorbed (des) in soil type 1 (low organic content)
  • Table6: Isotherm parameter values for the pharmaceuticals adsorbed (ads) in activated sludge
  • Table7: Isotherm parameter values for six pharmaceuticals adsorbed (ads) in anaerobic sludge
Download tables as Excel
Funding
  • This work was supported by EU (REMPHARMAWATER: EVK1, 2000-00048)
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