We still feel that 3D structures are essential for the realization of photonic crystal devices.A 3D arrangement of elements and wiring has been adopted in electronic devices to formulate highly integrated components
Microassembly of semiconductor three-dimensional photonic crystals.
NATURE MATERIALS, no. 2 (2003): 117-121
Electronic devices and their highly integrated components formed from semiconductor crystals contain complex three-dimensional (3D) arrangements of elements and wiring. Photonic crystals, being analogous to semiconductor crystals, are expected to require a 3D structure to form successful optoelectronic devices. Here, we report a novel fab...更多
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- Since the concept of the photonic bandgap (PBG) was introduced in 19871,2, the dream has been the creation of optical integrated circuits, in which zero-threshold lasers, sharp-bend waveguides or multiplexers are accumulated on one chip[3,4].
- Various trials[16,17,18,19,20,21,22,23,24,25,26,27,28,29,30] have been conducted, and fabrication technologies for 3D crystals have come in many forms such as angle etching[16,17,18], colloidal precipitation[19,20], photopolymerization[21,22,23], and layer-by-layer methods[24,25,26,27,28,29,30].These structures show that perfect PBGs do exist in the real world, and greatly contributed to the increasing study of this field.
- Since the concept of the photonic bandgap (PBG) was introduced in 19871,2, the dream has been the creation of optical integrated circuits, in which zero-threshold lasers, sharp-bend waveguides or multiplexers are accumulated on one chip[3,4]
- 3D crystals are ideal to manipulate the flow of light at will,most of the efforts have been aimed at two-dimensional (2D) crystals, because they can be obtained using conventional semiconductor processing
- We still feel that 3D structures are essential for the realization of photonic crystal devices.A 3D arrangement of elements and wiring has been adopted in electronic devices to formulate highly integrated components
- Various trials[16,17,18,19,20,21,22,23,24,25,26,27,28,29,30] have been conducted, and fabrication technologies for 3D crystals have come in many forms such as angle etching[16,17,18], colloidal precipitation[19,20], photopolymerization[21,22,23], and layer-by-layer methods[24,25,26,27,28,29,30].These structures show that perfect PBGs do exist in the real world, and greatly contributed to the increasing study of this field
- To demonstrate the flexibility in design of our technique, an eightlayer photonic crystal incorporating a defect was assembled on the same chip on which the crystals shown in Fig. 2a were integrated
- All of these technologies have concentrated on fabricating defectless large-scale crystals for the purpose of measuring the optical characteristics. there is the problem of proposing how the integration of multiple components can be achieved using these techniques.
- Each unit plate was prepared using a conventional integrated circuit processing procedure with subsequent assembly into 3D structures by micromanipulation.
- Unit plates were sustained in air with narrow bridges.Indium phosphide (InP) was chosen as the material for the photonic crystal because InP group lasers have already won a reputation as a stable and high-power light source for 1.5 μm wavelength.
- The periodical accuracy was in agreement with the four-layered crystal, with a structural error of within 50 nm, as observed from Fig. 2b.
- A gap appeared in the same wavelength region where the reflectance peaks were observed.The gap became deeper as the number of layers was increased, and the attenuation reached above 25 dB with the 20-layer crystal.
- Preparation of larger crystals would be expected to deliver results equivalent to reported values.The authors can surely prepare large crystals with shorter periods, but would reach the size limitation of a relatively soft material such as InP.
- Similar spectra have been reported for millimetre-wave scale multilayer crystals39,40—the undulating structure and fall off in transmission in the high-frequency region in the results is in good agreement with these.
- To demonstrate the flexibility in design of the technique, an eightlayer photonic crystal incorporating a defect was assembled on the same chip on which the crystals shown in Fig. 2a were integrated.
- The authors will go on to the production of larger crystals for optical communication wavelengths, introduction of more complicated defects such as lasing elements, multilevel crossing and branched waveguides, and integration of various elements on one chip.
- This work has been supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports
- K.A. gratefully acknowledges a fellowship ‘President’s Special Research Grant’ provided by RIKEN
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