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The calcium concentration increased by about 10%, reaching a maximum when the consumption of acid reached its maximum

Calcium orthophosphates: crystallization and dissolution.

CHEMICAL REVIEWS, no. 11.0 (2008): 4628-4669

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Abstract

Lijun Wang received his B.S. from China Agricultural University (Beijing) in Soil Chemistry (1990). After working as an assistant scientist at the Tibet Institute of Plateau Ecology, he went to the Condensed Matter Physics and Photochemistry Laboratory, Chemistry Department of Jilin University (Changchun, China), and focused on studies of...More

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Introduction
  • Lijun Wang received his B.S. from China Agricultural University (Beijing) in Soil Chemistry (1990).
  • The reconsideration of PCs as possible components in the actual structural model of ACP resulted from the cluster growth model of the HAP crystal.[12] Ab initio calculations confirmed that stable isomers exist on the [Ca3(PO4)2]3 potential energy surface (PES).[12,13] These isomers correspond to compact arrangements, i.e., arrangements in which the Ca and PO4 are disposed closely together.
Highlights
  • Lijun Wang received his B.S. from China Agricultural University (Beijing) in Soil Chemistry (1990)
  • Experiments were performed in the presence and absence of albumin (BSA) and fibrinogen (Fib) in solution as well as studying the effect of surface immobilized proteins on the biomineralization process; the results suggested that the major influence of these proteins on the CaP growth rate was their adsorption to the initially formed amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP), inhibiting the dissolution/reprecipitation of calcium phosphate
  • The result is a decrease in the energy barrier for attachment of solutes to the solid phase. These findings show that the growth-modifying properties of small model peptides may be scaled up to analyze mineralization processes that are mediated by more complex proteins
  • In order to understand the fundamental processes leading to CaP-based biomineralization, this review focuses on the earliest events of homo/heterogeneous nucleation from an initial supersaturated solution phase and subsequent crystal growth involving various possible precursor phases to the final mineral phase by specific templating and the influences of other modulators
  • A substantial body of circumstantial evidence suggests that proteins and other organic molecules in a wide range of biomineral structures serve as nucleation “templates”, providing preferential sites for nucleation and controlling the orientation of the resulting crystals
  • The calcium concentration increased by about 10%, reaching a maximum when the consumption of acid reached its maximum
  • Biodemineralization reactions of tooth enamel and bone may be inhibited or even suppressed when particle sizes fall into certain critical nanoscale levels
Results
  • The calcium concentration increased by about 10%, reaching a maximum when the consumption of acid reached its maximum.
  • PAA inhibited OCP growth by 20% when only 1% of the (100) face was covered.
  • PPn had to reach over 200% (010) face coverage before a similar level of crystal growth inhibition was obtained.[268].
  • Human enamel is an inhomogeneous tissue with an approximately 10% reduction in mineral concentration from the surface to the dentin-enamel junction (DEJ).[387]
Conclusion
  • Biominerals often grow in exact locations within complex crystal composites and exhibit specific crystallographic orientations
  • Such features can only be determined during the nucleation stage.
  • Biodemineralization reactions of tooth enamel and bone may be inhibited or even suppressed when particle sizes fall into certain critical nanoscale levels
  • This phenomenon involves particle size-dependent critical conditions of energetic control at the molecular level.
  • This size is not arbitrary; rather, it appears to give biominerals such as bone and tooth remarkable physical characteristics
Tables
  • Table1: Ca/P Molar Ratios, Chemical Formulas, and Solubilitiesa of Some Calcium Orthophosphate Minerals[<a class="ref-link" id="c1" href="#r1">1</a>,<a class="ref-link" id="c3" href="#r3">3</a>,<a class="ref-link" id="c4" href="#r4">4</a>]
  • Table2: Crystallographic Data of Calcium Orthophosphates[<a class="ref-link" id="c1" href="#r1">1</a>,<a class="ref-link" id="c4" href="#r4">4</a>,<a class="ref-link" id="c5" href="#r5">5</a>] compound
  • Table3: Crystal Growth Controls and Their Effect on the Bulk Solution and the Crystal Surfaces[<a class="ref-link" id="c6" href="#r6">6</a>] parameter
  • Table4: Effective Reaction Orders, n, for Different Mechanisms[<a class="ref-link" id="c217" href="#r217">217</a>] n
Download tables as Excel
Funding
  • This work was supported by a research grant from the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research of the NIH (DE03223-36)
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