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Unlike typically developing adolescents and adults, high-functioning adolescents and adults do not show the same bias for selective

Do high-functioning people with autism spectrum disorder spontaneously use event knowledge to selectively attend to and remember context-relevant aspects in scenes?

Journal of autism and developmental disorders, no. 7 (2011): 945-961

Cited by: 36|Views31
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Abstract

This study combined an event schema approach with top-down processing perspectives to investigate whether high-functioning children and adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) spontaneously attend to and remember context-relevant aspects of scenes. Participants read one story of story-pairs (e.g., burglary or tea party). They then insp...More

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Introduction
  • Over the past several years, eye-tracking techniques have become a fruitful tool to quantify the relative salience of different types of ‘stimuli’ when observing social situations without any instructions (Klin et al 2002a, b)
  • This line of research revealed that spontaneous interest in and attention to social information, which is typically present even in infants (Johnson and Morton 1991), appears to be attenuated in ASD from early on, and across the life-span and ability levels (Dawson et al 1998; Klin et al 2009; Osterling and Dawson 1994).
Highlights
  • Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are life-long developmental disorders, characterized by deficits in social interaction, communication and a set of repetitive and ritualistic

    J
  • Gaze-tracking suggests that one factor in these memory differences may be diminished top-down effects of event schemas on initial attention to relevant items in autism spectrum disorder (ASD)
  • This suggests that while VIQ affected the overall number of items recalled and the absolute number of items recalled in the categories ‘‘context-relevant’’ and ‘‘contextirrelevant’’, it did not influence the bias in recall of relevant over irrelevant items
  • The aims of this experiment were to replicate the memory differences found in Experiment 1 in adolescent boys with Asperger Syndrome (AS) in an adult ASD sample using a delayed recall measure, and to examine the relationships between gaze patterns during initial scene processing and recall
  • We provide preliminary indicators that one factor in these memory differences may be abnormalities in top-down effects from event schemas on the initial fixation on relevant objects when processing complex scenes
  • Some items were significantly more often recalled than others [e.g., in scene 1, items most often recalled were the police car (80%) and the cake (80%); items least often recalled included the video recorder (20%) and the juice (10%)] paired-sample t-tests revealed no significant differences in recall between items relating to one or the other event contexts in total, or in any of the 4 pictures
  • Unlike typically developing adolescents and adults, high-functioning adolescents and adults do not show the same bias for selective
Methods
  • Participants and Background Measures

    Twenty-five boys with Asperger Syndrome (AS) aged 8;7 years to 15;02 years and 20 typically developing (TD) boys between 8;7 years and 16;04 years took part in this experiment.
  • The boys with Asperger Syndrome had an average full-scale IQ of 107.5 and the TD boys of 101.8 (78–143).
  • There were no significant differences in verbal, performance or full-scale IQ but the boys with Asperger Syndrome were on average significantly older than the TD boys (t(44) = 2.4, p = .018).
  • To confirm group membership for this study and for dimensional analyses, parents of all boys were sent the Childhood Asperger Syndrome Test (CAST, Scott et al 2002).
  • All results reported below remained unchanged when these three boys were excluded from analyses
Results
  • After establishing that the data were normally distributed and that homogeneity of variances were equal, independent t-tests were performed to check for potential effects of story-set version.
  • The authors first performed a set of Pearson’s product-moment correlation analyses to explore, whether the overall number of items recalled, or the absolute or relative recall of specific item-types were related to age or IQ in either group.
  • In the AS group, VIQ significantly correlated with the total number of items recalled (r(25) = .45, p = .02), the number of context-relevant (r(25) = .47, p = .018) and context-irrelevant items (r(25) = .40, p = .047), but not the number of neutral items (r = .23, ns).
  • This suggests that while VIQ affected the overall number of items recalled and the absolute number of items recalled in the categories ‘‘context-relevant’’ and ‘‘contextirrelevant’’, it did not influence the bias in recall of relevant over irrelevant items
Conclusion
  • Discussion of

    Experiment 1

    Overall, the boys with AS recalled as many items from the scenes as the TD boys, but the two groups showed striking differences in the kind of things that they remembered.
  • Considering the memory results first, the authors robustly demonstrated diminished memory bias for context-relevant information in scenes in high-functioning children/adolescents and adults with ASD during immediate and delayed recall, respectively
  • These memory differences existed despite no differences in the overall number of items recalled (Experiment 1), and they were unrelated to age, IQ scores and they were not due to impairments in concept knowledge of the events.
  • Unlike typically developing adolescents and adults, high-functioning adolescents and adults do not show the same bias for selective
Tables
  • Table1: Participant characteristics; mean ± SD (range)
  • Table2: Mean (SD) and percentage (SD) of recall, by item type and by group
  • Table3: Participant characteristics Experiment 2; mean ± SD (range)
  • Table4: Table 4
  • Table5: Correlations between gaze times across the first ten fixations and item recall, by item category and group
  • Table6: Story set A
  • Table7: Context relevant items for each story and neutral (scene-schema related) items, by picture
Download tables as Excel
Funding
  • This research was funded by an ESRC early career fellowship to EL and a project grant by the Nuffield Foundation to EL, JCG and FH
Study subjects and analysis
boys with Asperger Syndrome: 25
. Twenty-five boys with Asperger Syndrome (AS) aged 8;7 years to 15;02 years (mean age: 12.1 years) and 20 typically developing (TD) boys between 8;7 years and 16;04 years (mean age: 10.4 years) took part in this experiment. Participants were only included in the ASD sample if a review of records confirmed that they had an existing clinical diagnosis of Asperger’s Disorder by an experienced clinician based on either ICD-10 or DSM-IV criteria

boys: 3
The CAST is a 37-item questionnaire, designed as a screening instrument to detect individuals at the high end of the autism spectrum, and probes for a variety of core autistic features in the social interaction, communication and repetitive behavior domains. All but three boys met cut-off criteria and their average scores were significantly higher than in the TD group (p \ .0001). All results reported below remained unchanged when these three boys were excluded from analyses

boys: 3
All but three boys met cut-off criteria and their average scores were significantly higher than in the TD group (p \ .0001). All results reported below remained unchanged when these three boys were excluded from analyses. To assess theory of mind competence (ToM), participants completed a standard false belief task (Baron-Cohen et al 1985; max score = 2) and eight of Happe’s Strange Stories (Happe 1994)

story pairs: 4
A summary of participant characteristics is shown in Table 1. Four story pairs were created, which manipulated the event contexts. For example, in one story pair, a character was either on his way to break into a house or to go to a tea party

TD children aged 6–10: 29
To examine the role of contextual relevance independently from differences in spontaneous attention to social information (see, e.g., Klin et al 2002a, b), we deliberately chose scenes without people.1. To test whether objects related to one or the other story of a pair were more salient or memorable due to object properties or other bottom-up factors, and whether the story manipulations had the intended effect on memory, we first performed a pilot study with 29 TD children aged 6–10 years, who did not participate in the main experiment. This age range was chosen in order to accommodate the anticipated lowest mental age of the targeted AS sample. (i) Ten TD children were asked to inspect each of the four pictures for 30 s, presented on computer screen but without the preceding story manipulations

TD children: 10
To test whether objects related to one or the other story of a pair were more salient or memorable due to object properties or other bottom-up factors, and whether the story manipulations had the intended effect on memory, we first performed a pilot study with 29 TD children aged 6–10 years, who did not participate in the main experiment. This age range was chosen in order to accommodate the anticipated lowest mental age of the targeted AS sample. (i) Ten TD children were asked to inspect each of the four pictures for 30 s, presented on computer screen but without the preceding story manipulations. Immediately afterwards, they were asked to name everything they had seen in the picture

TD children: 19
This suggests that objects related to the different story sets were overall similar in visual salience. (ii) We then asked 19 TD children (who did not participate in (i)) to complete the task using the same procedure as used in our main experiment (see below). Nine children were read and simultaneously shown on computer screen story set 1, including the stories ‘‘burglary’’, ‘‘lost in town’’, ‘‘building a kite’’, and ‘‘odd couple’’. 10 children received story set 2, comprising the stories ‘‘tea party’’, ‘‘lunch’’, ‘‘camping’’, and ‘‘murder mystery’’

children: 9
(ii) We then asked 19 TD children (who did not participate in (i)) to complete the task using the same procedure as used in our main experiment (see below). Nine children were read and simultaneously shown on computer screen story set 1, including the stories ‘‘burglary’’, ‘‘lost in town’’, ‘‘building a kite’’, and ‘‘odd couple’’. 10 children received story set 2, comprising the stories ‘‘tea party’’, ‘‘lunch’’, ‘‘camping’’, and ‘‘murder mystery’’. Children who had received story set 1 remembered on average 9.5 contextrelevant items and 6.5 irrelevant items

boys with Asperger Syndrome: 25
Gaze-tracking suggests that one factor in these memory differences may be diminished top-down effects of event schemas on initial attention (first ten fixations) to relevant items in ASD. Participants and Background Measures

Twenty-five boys with Asperger Syndrome (AS) aged 8;7 years to 15;02 years (mean age: 12.1 years) and 20 typically developing (TD) boys between 8;7 years and 16;04 years (mean age: 10.4 years) took part in this experiment
. Participants were only included in the ASD sample if a review of records confirmed that they had an existing clinical diagnosis of Asperger’s Disorder by an experienced clinician based on either ICD-10 or DSM-IV criteria

boys: 3
All but three boys met cut-off criteria and their average scores were significantly higher than in the TD group (p \ .0001). All results reported below remained unchanged when these three boys were excluded from analyses.

boys with Asperger Syndrome: 25
Participants and Background Measures. Twenty-five boys with Asperger Syndrome (AS) aged 8;7 years to 15;02 years (mean age: 12.1 years) and 20 typically developing (TD) boys between 8;7 years and 16;04 years (mean age: 10.4 years) took part in this experiment. Participants were only included in the ASD sample if a review of records confirmed that they had an existing clinical diagnosis of Asperger’s Disorder by an experienced clinician based on either ICD-10 or DSM-IV criteria

boys: 3
All but three boys met cut-off criteria and their average scores were significantly higher than in the TD group (p \ .0001). All results reported below remained unchanged when these three boys were excluded from analyses. To assess theory of mind competence (ToM), participants completed a standard false belief task (Baron-Cohen et al 1985; max score = 2) and eight of Happe’s Strange Stories (Happe 1994)

boys: 25
The false belief task was a standard location-change task adapted for older participants (story accompanied by photographs instead of being acted out. AS boys (N = 25). TD boys (N = 20)

boys: 20
AS boys (N = 25). TD boys (N = 20). Age (years; months) FIQ VIQ PIQ ToM (max = 19) CAST score

TD children aged 6–10: 29
To examine the role of contextual relevance independently from differences in spontaneous attention to social information (see, e.g., Klin et al 2002a, b), we deliberately chose scenes without people.1. To test whether objects related to one or the other story of a pair were more salient or memorable due to object properties or other bottom-up factors, and whether the story manipulations had the intended effect on memory, we first performed a pilot study with 29 TD children aged 6–10 years, who did not participate in the main experiment. This age range was chosen in order to accommodate the anticipated lowest mental age of the targeted AS sample. (i) Ten TD children were asked to inspect each of the four pictures for 30 s, presented on computer screen but without the preceding story manipulations

boys with AS and 10 TD boys were randomly: 12
The typically developing boys were either seen at their school or were visited at home. Twelve boys with AS and 10 TD boys were randomly assigned to story set A, 13 boys with AS and 10 TD boys to story set B. The task was presented on a laptop with a 1500 screen

data: 25
N neutral (max = 51). AS (N = 25) TD (N = 20). with Pitchert and Anderson’s (1977) original finding of the influence of perspective on story recall, and extends it to memory of visual scenes

individuals with ASD: 13
Participant Characteristics and Background Measures. Thirteen individuals with ASD (11 male, 2 female, 11 with a diagnosis of Asperger Syndrome, 2 with a diagnosis of highfunctioning autism, mean age 25;6 years) and 14 TD young adults (11 male, 3 female, mean age 23;4 years) took part in this experiment. The participants with ASD included in this study had all received a prior diagnosis by experienced clinicians based on established criteria (ICD-10, WHO 1993; DSM-IV, APA 1994)

data: 13
Level of intellectual ability was assessed using the Wechsler Abbreviated Scales of Intelligence (WASI 1999). ASD group TD group (N = 13). (N = 14)

data: 14
ASD group TD group (N = 13). (N = 14). Age (years; months)

participants: 5
Directed Attention Condition. Overall, the participants with ASD correctly identified the relevant items in the different event contexts: 5 participants made no mistakes at all, 4 participants made 1–2 mistakes in total, i.e., they either omitted relevant items after prompting (i.e., disagreed that they were relevant for the event) or suggested that irrelevant or neutral items were important for the event. Two participants made 3–4 errors, and 2 participants made more than 4 errors: One participant listed almost all irrelevant and neutral items in Story 1 (e.g., it was suggested that the thief would also eat the cake and the biscuits), while another one refused to answer the question related to story 3, since he himself had never built a kite

participants: 5
Visual Fixation Patterns. For five participants (4 with ASD and 1 TD), eye-movement recordings were not available or had to be excluded owing to loss of gaze data. This leaves 9 participants with ASD and 13 TD individuals (who did not significantly differ on IQ) for the analyses of fixation patterns

participants with ASD and 13 TD individuals: 9
For five participants (4 with ASD and 1 TD), eye-movement recordings were not available or had to be excluded owing to loss of gaze data. This leaves 9 participants with ASD and 13 TD individuals (who did not significantly differ on IQ) for the analyses of fixation patterns. Separate sets of t-tests revealed no significant group differences in overall gaze time, number of fixation, or fixation duration (all p [ .2)

data: 13
During any one fixation, both groups looked on average significantly longer at the relevant than the irrelevant items, and also significantly longer at the relevant and irrelevant items than the neutral ones (all p \ .01). ASD (N = 13) TD (N = 14). % gaze time (a) 100

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