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It is critical to design fibers that can absorb energy at lower strain and can be water resistant. We report that both properties can be achieved by hotdrawing single-wall nanotubes as well as multiwall nanotubes fibers

Hot-drawing of single and multiwall carbon nanotube fibers for high toughness and alignment.

NANO LETTERS, no. 11 (2005): 2212-2215

Cited by: 309|Views13
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Abstract

We report a new hot-drawing process for treating wet-spun composite fibers made of single- and multiwall carbon nanotubes and poly(vinyl alcohol). As shown in previous reports, untreated composite nanotube fibers exhibit a very large strain-to-failure, and their toughness, which is the energy needed to break the fibers, exceeds that of an...More

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Introduction
  • The authors report a new hot-drawing process for treating wet-spun composite fibers made of single- and multiwall carbon nanotubes and poly(vinyl alcohol).
  • The authors show for the first time that supertough fibers, with a toughness of 690 J/g and strain-to-failure of 340%, can be spun out of multiwall nanotubes (MWNT), thereby providing more opportunities for the use of various materials.
  • 9 Polyaramide fibers are less water-sensitive and absorb 35 J/g for a strain of only 3%.10 At such a strain, super-tough nanotube/PVA fibers have not yet absorbed 10 J/g.
Highlights
  • We report a new hot-drawing process for treating wet-spun composite fibers made of single- and multiwall carbon nanotubes and poly(vinyl alcohol)
  • The quickly increasing production of nanotubes is currently allowing the exploration of new treatments and processes that could lead to viable and useful nanotube textile technologies in the near future
  • Dalton et al have recently reported high toughness of fibers made of single-wall nanotubes (SWNT) and PVA.[8]
  • In this work, using methods described already, we demonstrate that untreated SWNT fibers are capable of absorbing 870 J/g with a strain-to-failure up to 430%
  • It is critical to design fibers that can absorb energy at lower strain and can be water resistant. We report that both properties can be achieved by hotdrawing SWNT as well as multiwall nanotubes (MWNT) fibers
  • The strain versus stress curves shown in Figure 2 demonstrate that hot-stretched fibers exhibit a higher strength and, more importantly, a significantly greater energy absorption at lower strain
Results
  • Exhibit a mechanical behavior markedly different from that of any nanotube fibers reported previously, including thermally untreated super-tough fibers.
  • Several hot-stretched nanotube fibers were tested; the authors found values of tensile strength between 1.4 and 1.8 GPa, strain-to-failure between 6 and 12%, and toughness between 40 and 60 J/g.
  • These untreated fibers exhibit a super toughness but a weak energy absorption at low strain.
  • Untreated MWNT fibers compare well with SWNT fibers even though the best results are slightly lower.
  • The modulus and strength of hot-stretched MWNT Arkema fibers compare well with SWNT they are slightly weaker.
  • As shown in Figures 2 and 4, the PVA chain alignment is (4.3° and (6.3° in SWNT and MWNT fibers, respectively.
  • The strain versus stress curves shown in Figure 2 demonstrate that hot-stretched fibers exhibit a higher strength and, more importantly, a significantly greater energy absorption at lower strain.
  • The fiber shown in Figure 2 exhibits a strain-to-failure of about 11% and a toughness of about 55 J/g, which is significantly higher than the toughness of Kevlar.[8]
Conclusion
  • The authors believe that the improvements of the strength and Young’s modulus are due primarily to the best alignment of the nanotubes and to the crystallinity of the PVA, which enhances the stress transfer between the polymer and the nanotubes.[11] the authors point out that crystalline PVA does not dissolve in water at room temperature.
  • Hot-stretched fibers do not swell and preserve their mechanical properties in water or humid conditions in contrast to super-tough-type fibers.
  • At least 1 order of magnitude is predicted for the Young’s modulus in the last degrees of alignment.[14] The authors believe that the new treatments and properties described in this work broaden the rich spectrum of applications of nanotube fibers, which already includes actuators,[9,15] microelectrodes,[16] electronic textiles, and super-capacitors.[8] In addition to their unique multifunctional character, the novel structures reported currently make nanotube fibers competitive with industrial high-performance fibers on a technical basis.[10]
Funding
  • This work has been done in the framework of the GDRE 2756 on Science and Applications of Nanotubes and is supported by the DGA
Reference
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