TBEP is commonly used in floor polish, which could explain the high concentration of TBEP found in floor dust
Association Between Indoor Exposure To Semi-Volatile Organic Compounds And Building-Related Symptoms Among The Occupants Of Residential Dwellings
INDOOR AIR, no. 1 (2010): 72-84
P>The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of semi-volatile compounds (SVOCs) in residential detached houses in Sapporo, Japan, and whether exposure to these SVOCs was associated with the development of building-related symptoms named 'sick house syndrome' (SHS). The definition of SHS is fundamentally the same as that of the sick ...更多
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- A wide variety of chemicals derived from plastic products, electric apparatus, interior construction materials, and fabrics are found in homes
- Even though their boiling points range from 240–260°C to 380–400°C, semi-volatile compounds (SVOCs), such as plastics additives, can vaporize from the surfaces of synthetic products because SVOCs are non-covalently bound to polymeric materials.
- Numerous SVOCs have been found in air and/or dust samples from homes (Otake et al, 2004; Rudel et al, 2003; Saito et al, 2004, 2007)
- A wide variety of chemicals derived from plastic products, electric apparatus, interior construction materials, and fabrics are found in homes
- Semi-volatile organic compounds released from indoor surfaces partition between the gas-phase, airborne particles, and house dust
- The distribution of semi-volatile compounds (SVOCs) between multi-surface dust and floor dust may equilibrate via the gas-phase, explaining the observed correlations between chemical concentrations in multisurface dust and those in floor dust (Table 6)
- Chemical concentrations are likely to be much higher in dust samples that have been in contact with the source of the chemicals
- TBEP is commonly used in floor polish, which could explain the high concentration of TBEP found in floor dust
- The concentrations of TCiPP, TEHP, TBEP, and TPhP in multi-surface dust were significantly correlated with those in floor dust
- Larger molecular weight compounds with lower vapor pressures tend to predominate in dust (Clausen et al, Table 8 Associations between concentrations of SVOCs and mucosal symptoms of symptoms named Ôsick house syndromeÕ (SHS) evaluated by logistic regression models including single chemical
This cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2006 to January 2007; 134 occupants participated (33 with SHS, 101 without SHS), and 41 dwellings were evaluated (20 with at least one occupant with SHS, and 21 without SHS).
- This study was conducted in Sapporo as follow-up to 2005, 2004 (Takeda et al, 2009) and 2003 (Kishi et al, 2009) surveys.
- Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to all occupants in each dwelling; these were collected during the second visit when the air and dust samples were taken from the living room.
- Characteristics of dwellings and occupants
All 41 dwellings were detached houses, 3- to 8-years old, and their living rooms had wood or plywood flooring.
- All 41 dwellings were detached houses, 3- to 8-years old, and their living rooms had wood or plywood flooring.
- The number of inhabitants of each dwelling was 3.3 ± 1.0, and ranged from 2 to 5.
- In about onethird of the dwellings, the inhabitant did not know whether the ceiling, walls, or curtains contained flame retardants.
- Most of dwellings (80.5%) had at least one dampness indicator.
- There was condensation on window panes or walls in 20 dwellings (48.8%) and visible mold growth in 29 dwellings (70.7%)
- Semi-volatile organic compounds released from indoor surfaces partition between the gas-phase, airborne particles, and house dust.
- The distribution of SVOCs between multi-surface dust and floor dust may equilibrate via the gas-phase, explaining the observed correlations between chemical concentrations in multisurface dust and those in floor dust (Table 6).
- Larger molecular weight compounds with lower vapor pressures tend to predominate in dust (Clausen et al., Chemical Sample Total (n).
- Table1: Association of phthalate exposure and allergy or pulmonary function in previous studies
- Table2: Properties of target compounds
- Table3: Dwelling characteristics
- Table4: Inhabitant characteristics
- Table5: Detection rates and the concentrations of semi-volatile organic compounds in room air: Values shown are total concentration of a given SVOC in air, representing the sum of gaseous and particulate phases
- Table6: Detection rates and the concentrations of semi-volatile organic compounds in household dust
- Table7: Factors relating to sick house syndrome (SHS)
- Table8: Associations between concentrations of SVOCs and mucosal symptoms of SHS evaluated by logistic regression models including single chemical
- Table9: Associations of concentrations of SVOCs with mucosal symptoms of SHS evaluated by logistic regression models including several chemicals
- This study was supported by a grant H18-Research on Community Health Crisis Management-Ippan-009 from the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan
phosphate triester flame retardants: 11
This study targeted abundantly produced compounds identified in the annual report of the Chemical Diary, as well as compounds detected frequently, albeit in small amounts, in a survey conducted by the Tokyo metropolitan government. The target compounds consisted of eight plasticizers, 11 phosphate triester flame retardants, two alkyl phenols used as anti-oxidants, and one organochlorine synergist called s-421 or S-2. S-421 is widely used as a synergist in pyrethroid-based insecticides in
Bornehag et al (2004a). Nested case-control study Children aged 3–8 years (198 cases and 202 controls), 390 homes Wheezing, rhinitis, eczema. Chemicals in multi-surface dusts (346 bedrooms)
Hoppin et al (2004) USA Cross-sectional study. Adults (140 females and 100 males) in urine. Forced vital capacity (FVC); forced expiratory volume at 1 s (FEV1); peak expiratory flow (PEF), maximum mid-expiratory flow (MMEF)
Kolarik et al (2008). Nested case-control study Pre-school children (102 cases and 82 controls), 177 homes Wheezing, rhinitis, eczema. Chemicals in multi-surface GM (mg/kg dust): dusts
Currently, smoking was reported by 19% of the respondents. Thirty-three respondents (24.6% of. Dwellings with ÔSHS problemÕa Wall materials
Occupants (persons/dwelling) Room cleaning (times/week) Window opening (times/week) aThere were at least one person reporting any symptom of SHS. Overall (N = 41) n (%). 5 (12.2) 5 (12.2) Mean € SD
5 (12.2) 5 (12.2) Mean € SD. Overall (N = 134) n (%). Gender Male Female
Eye symptoms Nose symptoms Throat and respiratory symptoms Skin symptoms General symptoms aRespondents reporting at least one symptom ÔweeklyÕ or ÔsometimesÕ were accounted for. total), consisting of 12 males and 21 females, reported having at least one SHS symptom weekly or sometimes (Table 4). The number of respondents reporting mucosal symptoms (i.e., any eye, nose, and/or throat and respiratory symptoms) was 29 (21.6% of total)
The reported values are total concentrations of an SVOC in air, representing the sum of gaseous and particulate phases. One of the 41 dwellings was not sampled at all due to a pump error and another sample was short of the 48-h sampling time by a few hours; data for 39 or 40 samples of each compound were tabulated. For the sample with insufficient sampling time, some of the target compounds were not quantified
persons with asthma: 4
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