AI帮你理解科学

AI 生成解读视频

AI抽取解析论文重点内容自动生成视频


pub
生成解读视频

AI 溯源

AI解析本论文相关学术脉络


Master Reading Tree
生成 溯源树

AI 精读

AI抽取本论文的概要总结


微博一下
TBEP is commonly used in floor polish, which could explain the high concentration of TBEP found in floor dust

Association Between Indoor Exposure To Semi-Volatile Organic Compounds And Building-Related Symptoms Among The Occupants Of Residential Dwellings

INDOOR AIR, no. 1 (2010): 72-84

被引用82|浏览33
WOS
下载 PDF 全文
引用
微博一下

摘要

P>The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of semi-volatile compounds (SVOCs) in residential detached houses in Sapporo, Japan, and whether exposure to these SVOCs was associated with the development of building-related symptoms named 'sick house syndrome' (SHS). The definition of SHS is fundamentally the same as that of the sick ...更多

代码

数据

0
简介
  • A wide variety of chemicals derived from plastic products, electric apparatus, interior construction materials, and fabrics are found in homes
  • Even though their boiling points range from 240–260°C to 380–400°C, semi-volatile compounds (SVOCs), such as plastics additives, can vaporize from the surfaces of synthetic products because SVOCs are non-covalently bound to polymeric materials.
  • Numerous SVOCs have been found in air and/or dust samples from homes (Otake et al, 2004; Rudel et al, 2003; Saito et al, 2004, 2007)
重点内容
  • A wide variety of chemicals derived from plastic products, electric apparatus, interior construction materials, and fabrics are found in homes
  • Semi-volatile organic compounds released from indoor surfaces partition between the gas-phase, airborne particles, and house dust
  • The distribution of semi-volatile compounds (SVOCs) between multi-surface dust and floor dust may equilibrate via the gas-phase, explaining the observed correlations between chemical concentrations in multisurface dust and those in floor dust (Table 6)
  • Chemical concentrations are likely to be much higher in dust samples that have been in contact with the source of the chemicals
  • TBEP is commonly used in floor polish, which could explain the high concentration of TBEP found in floor dust
  • The concentrations of TCiPP, TEHP, TBEP, and TPhP in multi-surface dust were significantly correlated with those in floor dust
  • Larger molecular weight compounds with lower vapor pressures tend to predominate in dust (Clausen et al, Table 8 Associations between concentrations of SVOCs and mucosal symptoms of symptoms named Ôsick house syndromeÕ (SHS) evaluated by logistic regression models including single chemical
方法
  • Protocol

    This cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2006 to January 2007; 134 occupants participated (33 with SHS, 101 without SHS), and 41 dwellings were evaluated (20 with at least one occupant with SHS, and 21 without SHS).
  • This study was conducted in Sapporo as follow-up to 2005, 2004 (Takeda et al, 2009) and 2003 (Kishi et al, 2009) surveys.
  • Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to all occupants in each dwelling; these were collected during the second visit when the air and dust samples were taken from the living room.
结果
  • Characteristics of dwellings and occupants

    All 41 dwellings were detached houses, 3- to 8-years old, and their living rooms had wood or plywood flooring.
  • All 41 dwellings were detached houses, 3- to 8-years old, and their living rooms had wood or plywood flooring.
  • The number of inhabitants of each dwelling was 3.3 ± 1.0, and ranged from 2 to 5.
  • In about onethird of the dwellings, the inhabitant did not know whether the ceiling, walls, or curtains contained flame retardants.
  • Most of dwellings (80.5%) had at least one dampness indicator.
  • There was condensation on window panes or walls in 20 dwellings (48.8%) and visible mold growth in 29 dwellings (70.7%)
结论
  • Semi-volatile organic compounds released from indoor surfaces partition between the gas-phase, airborne particles, and house dust.
  • The distribution of SVOCs between multi-surface dust and floor dust may equilibrate via the gas-phase, explaining the observed correlations between chemical concentrations in multisurface dust and those in floor dust (Table 6).
  • Larger molecular weight compounds with lower vapor pressures tend to predominate in dust (Clausen et al., Chemical Sample Total (n).
表格
  • Table1: Association of phthalate exposure and allergy or pulmonary function in previous studies
  • Table2: Properties of target compounds
  • Table3: Dwelling characteristics
  • Table4: Inhabitant characteristics
  • Table5: Detection rates and the concentrations of semi-volatile organic compounds in room air: Values shown are total concentration of a given SVOC in air, representing the sum of gaseous and particulate phases
  • Table6: Detection rates and the concentrations of semi-volatile organic compounds in household dust
  • Table7: Factors relating to sick house syndrome (SHS)
  • Table8: Associations between concentrations of SVOCs and mucosal symptoms of SHS evaluated by logistic regression models including single chemical
  • Table9: Associations of concentrations of SVOCs with mucosal symptoms of SHS evaluated by logistic regression models including several chemicals
Download tables as Excel
基金
  • This study was supported by a grant H18-Research on Community Health Crisis Management-Ippan-009 from the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan
研究对象与分析
phosphate triester flame retardants: 11
This study targeted abundantly produced compounds identified in the annual report of the Chemical Diary, as well as compounds detected frequently, albeit in small amounts, in a survey conducted by the Tokyo metropolitan government. The target compounds consisted of eight plasticizers, 11 phosphate triester flame retardants, two alkyl phenols used as anti-oxidants, and one organochlorine synergist called s-421 or S-2. S-421 is widely used as a synergist in pyrethroid-based insecticides in

cases: 198
Bornehag et al (2004a). Nested case-control study Children aged 3–8 years (198 cases and 202 controls), 390 homes Wheezing, rhinitis, eczema. Chemicals in multi-surface dusts (346 bedrooms)

females: 140
Hoppin et al (2004) USA Cross-sectional study. Adults (140 females and 100 males) in urine. Forced vital capacity (FVC); forced expiratory volume at 1 s (FEV1); peak expiratory flow (PEF), maximum mid-expiratory flow (MMEF)

cases: 102
Kolarik et al (2008). Nested case-control study Pre-school children (102 cases and 82 controls), 177 homes Wheezing, rhinitis, eczema. Chemicals in multi-surface GM (mg/kg dust): dusts

respondents: 33
Currently, smoking was reported by 19% of the respondents. Thirty-three respondents (24.6% of. Dwellings with ÔSHS problemÕa Wall materials

data: 41
Occupants (persons/dwelling) Room cleaning (times/week) Window opening (times/week) aThere were at least one person reporting any symptom of SHS. Overall (N = 41) n (%). 5 (12.2) 5 (12.2) Mean € SD

data: 134
5 (12.2) 5 (12.2) Mean € SD. Overall (N = 134) n (%). Gender Male Female

males: 12
Eye symptoms Nose symptoms Throat and respiratory symptoms Skin symptoms General symptoms aRespondents reporting at least one symptom ÔweeklyÕ or ÔsometimesÕ were accounted for. total), consisting of 12 males and 21 females, reported having at least one SHS symptom weekly or sometimes (Table 4). The number of respondents reporting mucosal symptoms (i.e., any eye, nose, and/or throat and respiratory symptoms) was 29 (21.6% of total)

samples: 40
The reported values are total concentrations of an SVOC in air, representing the sum of gaseous and particulate phases. One of the 41 dwellings was not sampled at all due to a pump error and another sample was short of the 48-h sampling time by a few hours; data for 39 or 40 samples of each compound were tabulated. For the sample with insufficient sampling time, some of the target compounds were not quantified

persons with asthma: 4
Our data did not reveal any associations between phthalate diesters and current diagnosed allergy, most likely because of lack of power. The population in the current study included only four persons with asthma, 11 persons with rhinitis, 14 persons with dermatitis, and four persons with conjunctivitis. Although we found direct associations between mucosal symptoms of SHS and some SVOCs, the association between TDCPP in floor dust and mucosal symptoms of SHS was attenuated considerably by introducing TBP into the model together with TDCPP (data not shown)

引用论文
  • Bornehag, C.G., Sundell, J., Weschler, C.J., Sigsgaard, T., Lundgren, B., Hasselgren, M. and Hagerhed-Engman, L. (2004a) The association between asthma and allergic symptoms in children and phthalate diesters in house dust: a nested casecontrol study, Environ. Health Perspect., 112, 1393–1397.
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
  • Bornehag, C.G., Lundgren, B., Weschler, C.J., Sigsgaad, T., Hagerhed-Engman, L. and Sundell, J. (2004b) Phthalates in indoor dust and their association with building characteristics, Environ. Health Perspect., 113, 1399–1404.
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
  • and Aberg, N. (2005) ÔDampnessÕ at home and its association with airway, nose, and skin symptoms among 10,851 preschool children in Sweden: a crosssectional study, Indoor Air, 15(Suppl 10), 48–55.
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
  • Camarasa, J.G. and Serra-Baldrich, E. (1992) Allergic contact dermatitis from triphenyl phosphate, Contact Dermatitis, 26, 264–265.
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
  • Carlsen, L., Andersen, K.E. and Egsgaard, H. (1986) Triphenyl phosphate allergy from spectacle frames, Contact Dermatitis, 15, 274–277.
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
  • Carrington, C.D., Lapadula, D.M., Othman, M., Farr, C., Nair, R.S., Johannsen, F. and Abou-Donia, M.B. (1990) Assessment of the delayed neurotoxicity of tributyl phosphate, tributoxyethyl phosphate, and dibutylphenyl phosphate, Toxicol. Ind. Health, 6, 415–423.
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
  • Clausen, P.A., Hansen, V., Gunnarsen, L., Afshari, A. and Wolkoff, P. (2008) Emission of di-e-ethylhexyl phthalate from PVC flooring into air and uptake in dust: emission and sorption experiments in FLEC and CLIMPAQ, Environ. Sci. Technol., 38, 2531–2537.
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
  • Gartshore, J., Cooper, D.G. and Nicell, J.A. (2003) Biodegradation of plasticizers by Rhodotorula rubra, Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 22, 1244–1251.
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
  • Hansen, J.S., Larsen, S.T., Poulsen, L.K. and Nielsen, G.D. (2007) Adjuvant effects of inhaled mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate in BALB/cJ mice, Toxicology, 232, 79–88.
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
  • Hoppin, J.A., Ulmer, R. and London, S.J. (2004) Phthalate exposure and pulmonary function, Environ. Health Perspect., 112, 571–574.
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
  • Jaakkola, J.J., Øie, L., Nafstad, P., Botten, G., Samuelsen, S.O. and Magnus, P. (1999) Interior surface materials in the home and the development of bronchial obstruction in young children in Oslo, Norway, Am. J. Public Health, 89, 188– 192.
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
  • Jaakkola, J.J., Verkasalo, P.K. and Jaakkola, N. (2000) Plastic wall materials in the home and respiratory health in young children, Am. J. Public Health, 90, 797– 799.
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
  • Jaakkola, J.J., Parise, H., Kislitsin, V., Lebedeva, N.I. and Spengler, J.D. (2004) Asthma, wheezing, and allergies in Russian schoolchildren in relation to new surface materials in the home, Am. J. Public Health, 94, 560–562.
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
  • Jaakkola, J.J., Ieromnimon, A. and Jaakkola, M.S. (2006) Interior surface materials and asthma in adults: a population-based incident case-control study, Am. J. Epidemiol., 164, 742–749.
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
  • Kezic, S., Meuling, W.J. and Jakasa, I. (2004) Free and total urinary 2-butoxyacetic acid following dermal and inhalation exposure to 2-butoxyethanol in human volunteers, Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health, 77, 580–586.
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
  • Kim, J.L., Elfman, L., Mi, Y., Wieslander, G., Smedje, G. and Norback, D. (2007) Indoor molds, bacteria, microbial volatile organic compounds and plasticizers in schools – associations with asthma and respiratory symptoms in pupils, Indoor Air, 17, 153–163.
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
  • Kishi, R., Saijo, Y., Kanazawa, A., Tanaka, M., Yoshimura, T., Chikara, H., Takigawa, T., Morimoto, K., Nakayama, K. and Shibata, E. (2009) Regional differences in residential environments and the association of dwellings and residential factors with the sick house syndrome: a nationwide cross-sectional questionnaire study in Japan, Indoor Air, 19, 243–254.
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
  • Kolarik, B., Naydenov, K., Larsson, M., Bornehag, C.G. and Sundell, J. (2008) The association between phthalates in dust and allergic diseases among Bulgarian children, Environ. Health Perspect., 116, 98–103.
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
  • Korinth, G., Jakasa, I., Wellner, T., Kezic, S., Kruse, J. and Schaller, K.H. (2007) Percutaneous absorption and metabolism of 2-butoxyethanol in human volunteers: a microdialysis study, Toxicol. Lett., 170, 97–103.
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
  • Larsen, S.T., Hansen, J.S., Thygesen, P., Begtrup, M., Poulsen, O.M. and Nielsen, G.D. (2001) Adjuvant and immuno-suppressive effect of six monophthalates in a subcutaneous injection model with BALB/c mice, Toxicology, 169, 37–51.
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
  • Larsen, S.T., Hansen, J.S., Hammer, M., Alarie, Y. and Nielsen, G.D. (2004) Effects of mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate on the respiratory tract in BALB/c mice, Hum. Exp. Toxicol., 23, 537–545.
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
  • Matthews, H.B., Dixon, D., Herr, D.W. and Tilson, H. (1990) Subchronic toxicity studies indicate that tris(2-chloroethyl)phosphate administration results in lesions in the rat hippocampus, Toxicol. Ind. Health, 6, 1–15.
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
  • Mizoue, T., Reijula, K. and Andersson, K. (2001) Environmental tobacco smoke exposure and overtime work as risk factors for sick building syndrome in Japan, Am. J. Epidemiol., 154, 803–808.
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
  • Nakamiya, K., Takagi, H., Nakayama, T., Ito, H., Tsuruga, H., Edmonds, J.S. and Morita, M. (2005) Microbial production and vaporization of mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate from di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate by microorganisms inside houses, Arch. Environ. Occup. Health, 60, 321– 325.
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
  • Nalli, S., Cooper, D.G. and Nicell, J.A. (2002) Biodegradation of plasticizers by Rhodococcus rhodochrous, Biodegradation, 13, 343–352.
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
  • Nalli, S., Cooper, D.G. and Nicell, J.A. (2006a) Metabolites from the biodegradation of di-ester plasticizers by Rhodococcus rhodochrous, Sci. Total Environ., 366, 286–294.
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
  • Nalli, S., Horn, O.J., Grochowalski, A.R., Cooper, D.G. and Nicell, J.A. (2006b) Origin of 2-ethylhexanol as a VOC, Environ. Pollut., 140, 181–185.
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
  • Norback, D., Wieslander, G., Nordstrom, K. and Walinder, R. (2000) Asthma symptoms in relation to measured building dampness in upper concrete floor construction, and 2-ethyl-1-hexanol in indoor air, Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis., 4, 1016–1025.
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
  • Øie, L., Hersoug, L.G. and Madsen, J.Ø. (1997) Residential exposure to plasticizers and its possible role in the pathogenesis of asthma, Environ. Health Perspect., 105, 972–978.
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
  • Øie, L., Nafstad, P., Botten, G., Magnus, P. and Jaakkola, J.K. (1999) Ventilation in homes and bronchial obstruction in young children, Epidemiology, 10, 294– 299.
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
  • Otake, T., Yoshinaga, J. and Yanagisawa, Y. (2004) Exposure to phthalate esters from indoor environment, J. Expo. Anal. Environ. Epidemiol., 14, 524–528.
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
  • Park, J.H., Schleiff, P.L., Attfield, M.D., Cox-Ganser, J.M. and Kreiss, K. (2004) Building-related respiratory symptoms can be predicted with semi-quantitative indices of exposure to dampness and mold, Indoor Air, 14, 425–433.
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
  • Redlich, C.A., Sparer, J. and Cullen, M.R. (1997) Sick-building syndrome, Lancet, 349, 1013–1016.
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
  • Rudel, R.A., Camann, D.E., Spengler, J.D., Korn, L.R. and Brody, J.G. (2003) Phthalates, alkylphenols, pesticides, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and other endocrine-disrupting compounds in indoor air and dust, Environ. Sci. Technol., 37, 4543–4553.
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
  • Saijo, Y., Kish, R., Sata, F., Katakura, Y., Urashima, Y., Hatakeyama, A., Mukaihara, N., Kobayashi, S., Jin, K. and Iikura, Y. (2002) Symptoms of sick house syndrome and contributory factors; study of general dwellings in Hokkaido, Nippon Koshu Eisei Zasshi, 49, 1169–1183.
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
  • Saijo, Y., Kishi, R., Sata, F., Katakura, Y., Urashima, Y., Hatakeyama, A., Kobayashi, S., Jin, K., Kurahashi, N., Kondo, T., Gong, Y.Y. and Umemura, T. (2004) Symptoms in relation to chemicals and dampness in newly built dwellings, Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health, 77, 461– 470.
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
  • Saito, I., Onuki, A. and Seto, H. (2004) Indoor air pollution by alkylphenols in Tokyo, Indoor Air, 14, 325–332.
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
  • Saito, I., Onuki, A. and Seto, H. (2007) Indoor organophosphate and polybrominated flame retardants in Tokyo, Indoor Air, 17, 28–36.
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
  • Salthammer, T., Fuhrmann, F. and Uhde, E. (2003) Flame retardants in the indoor environment – part II: release of VOCs (triethylphosphate and halogenated degradation products) from polyurethane, Indoor Air, 13, 49–52.
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
  • Seki, A., Takigawa, T., Kishi, R., Sakabe, K., Torii, S., Tanaka, M., Yoshimura, T., Morimoto, K., Katoh, T., Kira, S. and Aizawa, Y. (2007) Review of sick house syndrome, Nippon Eiseigaku Zasshi, 62, 939–948.
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
  • Singh, P., Zhao, S. and Blaylock, B.L. (2001) Topical exposure to 2-butoxyethanol alters immune responses in female BALB/c mice, Int. J. Toxicol., 20, 383– 390.
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
  • Takano, H., Yanagisawa, R., Inoue, K., Ichinose, T., Sadakane, K. and Yoshikawa, T. (2006) Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate enhances atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in mice, Environ. Health Perspect., 114, 1266–1269.
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
  • Takeda, M., Saijo, Y., Yuasa, M., Kanazawa, A., Araki, A. and Kishi, R. (2009) Relationship between sick building syndrome and indoor environmental factors in newly-built Japanese dwellings, Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health, 82, 583–593.
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
  • Tham, K.W., Zuraimi, M.S., Koh, D., Chew, F.T. and Ooi, P.L. (2007) Associations between home dampness and presence of molds with asthma and allergic symptoms among young children in the tropics, Pediatr. Allergy Immunol., 18, 418–424.
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
  • Tuomainen, A., Seuri, M. and Sieppi, A. (2004) Indoor air quality and health problems associated with damp floor coverings, Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health, 77, 222–226.
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
  • Walinder, R., Wieslander, G., Norback, D., Wessen, B. and Venge, P. (2001) Nasal lavage biomarkers: effects of water damage and microbial growth in an office building, Arch. Environ. Health, 56, 30–36.
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
  • Webb, J.S., Nixon, M., Eastwood, I.M., Greenhalgh, M., Robson, G.D. and Handley, P.S. (2000) Fungal colonization and biodeterioration of plasticized polyvinyl chloride, Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 66, 3194–3200.
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
  • Weiner, M.L. and Jortner, B.S. (1999) Organophosphate-induced delayed neurotoxicity of triarylphosphates, Neurotoxicology, 20, 653–673.
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
  • Weschler, C.J. (1980) Characterization of selected organics in size-fractionated indoor aerosols, Environ. Sci. Technol., 14, 428–431.
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
  • Weschler, C.J. and Nazaroff, W.W. (2008) Semivolatile organic compounds in indoor environments, Atmos. Environ., 42, 9018–9040.
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
  • Weschler, C.J., Salthammer, T. and Fromme, H. (2008) Partitioning of phthalates among the gas phase, airborne particles and settled dust in indoor environments, Atmos. Environ., 42, 1449–1460.
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
  • WHO/IPCS. (1991) Environmental Health Criteria 112 Tris-n-butyl phosphate. Geneva, World Health Organization.
    Google ScholarFindings
  • Wieslander, G., Norback, D., Nordstrom, K., Walinder, R. and Venge, P. (1999) Nasal and ocular symptoms, tear film stability and biomarkers in nasal lavage, in relation to building-dampness and building design in hospitals, Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health, 72, 451–461.
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
作者
您的评分 :
0

 

标签
评论
数据免责声明
页面数据均来自互联网公开来源、合作出版商和通过AI技术自动分析结果,我们不对页面数据的有效性、准确性、正确性、可靠性、完整性和及时性做出任何承诺和保证。若有疑问,可以通过电子邮件方式联系我们:report@aminer.cn
小科