This study presents indoor and outdoor PM concentrations and their elemental compositions measured simultaneously in 15 homes located in Kocaeli, Turkey, during winter and summer
Indoor/outdoor concentrations and elemental composition of PM10/PM2.5 in urban/industrial areas of Kocaeli City, Turkey.
Indoor air, no. 2 (2010): 112-125
This study presents indoor/outdoor PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations measured during winter and summer in 15 homes in Kocaeli, which is one of the most industrialized areas in Turkey. Indoor and outdoor PM2.5 and PM10 mass concentrations and elemental composition were determined using an X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. Quantitative informati...更多
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- Many studies have been performed in recent years concerning total suspended particles (TSPs) in ambient air and the health risks caused by exposure to these particles.
- Some trace metals (As, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se) that may be detected in the elemental composition of these particles are human carcinogens.
- Most of these elements are related to outdoor
- This study presents the simultaneous measurement of PM fractions (PM2.5 and Particles with diameters <10 lm (PM10)) and their elemental compositions to determine the sources of respirable PM and the heavy metals bound to these particles in indoor air
- Many studies have been performed in recent years concerning total suspended particles (TSPs) in ambient air and the health risks caused by exposure to these particles
- This study presents a study of indoor and outdoor PM concentrations and their elemental compositions (Al, Si, S, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, and Pb) measured simultaneously in 15 homes located in Kocaeli, Turkey, during winter and summer
- (1989), Chao and Wong (2002), Chang et al (2003), Na et al (2004), and Gemenetzis et al (2006) were higher in smoking homes compared with non-smoking homes, proving that smoking is a significant indoor source for these elements. These results show that environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is a significant indoor PM source for the PM2.5 fraction, and for the PM10 fraction
- The Kocaeli region is one of the most industrialized and urbanized areas in Turkey.
- The rapid industrial development that took place in this area, especially in the last 30 years, has caused a significant increase in environmental pollution levels, and studies concerning the health risks caused by exposure to pollutants in this region have a high importance.
- Kocaeli is one of the smallest provinces by area in Turkey, it has a high population density (333 persons per km, second in Turkey) and population growth rate (2.7%, 10th in Turkey).
- Results and discussion
Table 2 shows a summary of the elemental compositions of indoor and outdoor PM samples collected during summer and winter in the homes, including average metal concentrations, indoor/outdoor ratios, correlation coefficients, and summer/winter ratios.
- High indoor concentrations of crustal elements such as Ca and Si, in addition to those of other elements with the same origin such as Al, Ti, Mn, and Fe, suggest high transport rates from outdoor to indoor environments for these elements.
- This study presents indoor and outdoor PM concentrations (PM2.5 and PM10) and their elemental compositions (Al, Si, S, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, and Pb) measured simultaneously in 15 homes located in Kocaeli, Turkey, during winter and summer.
- Table1: Microenvironment characteristics and sampling conditions
- Table2: Indoor and outdoor element concentrations in PM2.5 and PM10 fractions (lg/m3), indoor/outdoor correlation coefficients and indoor/outdoor ratios
- Table3: Summer/winter concentration ratios in PM2.5 and PM10 fractions
- Table4: PM2.5/PM10 ratios of the elements
- Table5: Differences in indoor PM2.5 and elemental concentrations (lg/m3) for homes by cigarette smoke exposure
- Table6: Differences in indoor PM10 and elemental concentrations (lg/m3) for homes by cigarette smoke exposure
- Table7: PM2.5 and PM10 mass concentrations (lg/m3) from various studies
- Table8: Factor analysis of indoor and outdoor data in homes (PM2.5)
- Table9: Factor analysis of indoor and outdoor data in homes (PM10)
- Financial support from the TU BI_TAK (The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey) Grant (104Y275) is gratefully acknowledged
The rapid industrial development that took place in this area, especially in the last 30 years, has caused a significant increase in environmental pollution levels, and studies concerning the health risks caused by exposure to pollutants in this region therefore have a high importance. Although Kocaeli is one of the smallest provinces by area in Turkey (eighth out of 81 provinces; 3.626 km2), it has a high population density (333 persons per km2, second in Turkey) and population growth rate (2.7%, 10th in Turkey). At present, >1000 industrial institutions in various sectors are located in Kocaeli, including a huge refinery meeting >30% of the fuel usage in Turkey, a petrochemical complex, a hazardous waste incinerator, and many industrial processes in various sectors such as textile, machine, mine, metal, food, automotive, paper, chemistry, wood, petroleum, tanning, coal, etc.
The explosive growth in traffic observed in the last decade has had a noticeable impact on air quality
The explosive growth in traffic observed in the last decade has had a noticeable impact on air quality
The rapid industrial development that took place in this area, especially in the last 30 years, has caused a significant increase in environmental pollution levels, and studies concerning the health risks caused by exposure to pollutants in this region therefore have a high importance. Although Kocaeli is one of the smallest provinces by area in Turkey (eighth out of 81 provinces; 3.626 km2), it has a high population density (333 persons per km2, second in Turkey) and population growth rate (2.7%, 10th in Turkey). At present, >1000 industrial institutions in various sectors are located in Kocaeli, including a huge refinery meeting >30% of the fuel usage in Turkey, a petrochemical complex, a hazardous waste incinerator, and many industrial processes in various sectors such as textile, machine, mine, metal, food, automotive, paper, chemistry, wood, petroleum, tanning, coal, etc
The concentrations of PM2.5. Smokers home (n = 10). Mean s.d
Mean s.d. Non-smokers home (n = 5). Mean s.d
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- Lachenmyer and Hidy (2000) Perez et al. (2008)
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- – December 1994–January 1995
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- Jansen et al. (2005)
- Winters 1998–1999
- Rojas-Bracho et al. (2002)
- Borrego et al. (2006) McCormack et al. (2008)
- December 1999–March 2000 –
- Li and Lin (2003) Na et al. (2004) BØruBØ et al. (2004) Jones et al. (2000)
- Winter–Spring 2000
- Geller et al. (2002)
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