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Our experiments show that the adaptation scheme considerably reduces the resource demands while enhancing the perceived visual quality

Color-plus-depth level-of-detail in 3D tele-immersive video: a psychophysical approach

ACM Multimedia 2001, pp.13-22, (2011)

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摘要

This paper presents a psychophysical study that measures the perceptual thresholds of a new factor called Color-plus-Depth Level-of-Detail peculiar to polygon-based 3D tele-immersive video. The results demonstrate the existence of Just Noticeable Degradation and Just Unacceptable Degradation thresholds on the factor. In light of the resul...更多

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简介
  • The past few years have witnessed a surge of interest in telepresence video collaboration technologies.
  • Several industrial systems have arisen [1][2], yet with a limited application domain as most are still concentrated solely on ⇤Area chair: Pal Halvorsen.
  • To republish, to post on servers or to redistribute to lists, requires prior specific permission and/or a fee
重点内容
  • The past few years have witnessed a surge of interest in telepresence video collaboration technologies
  • We evaluate the adaptation scheme in a real-world 3D tele-immersive testbed, and the experimental results demonstrate that the proposed scheme can achieve considerable improvement in frame rate without impairing perceived detailing quality
  • We show that the predictor can produce very high accuracy in real time (Section 5.3). (4) We demonstrate how the perceptual thresholds obtained psychophysically can be applied to practice for real-time resource management
  • In our other work [33], we have addressed the spatial challenge with an inter-stream data adaptation scheme at the networking phase that reduces the number of streams with minimal disruption to visual quality
  • This paper identifies a new critical quality factor called Color-plus-Depth Level-of-Detail (CZLoD) in 3D tele-immersive video
  • Our experiments show that the adaptation scheme considerably reduces the resource demands while enhancing the perceived visual quality
方法
  • Participants and Procedures

    The authors followed the ITU standard in conducting the experiment [13].
  • Sixteen adult participants were recruited from University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, primarily graduate students and sta↵ in the Department of Computer Science1.
  • Four participants were Indian, three were American, two were Chinese, two were German, three were Bangladeshi, one was Mexican, and one was South African.
  • The sample consisted of 6 women (37.5%) and 10 men (62.5%).
  • Regarding the level of experience with tele-immersive video, the sample consisted of 5 experts (31.25%) and 11 novices (68.75%)
结果
  • Perceptual thresholds are defined to be the stimulus intensities that can be detected/accepted some p portion of the time, with p = 50% often used [8].
  • The average JNDG across all conditions is 61.5%, suggesting that degradation below 61.5% is not noticeable to average users.
  • This implies that the authors can transparently reduce a considerable amount of resource usage by degrading CZLoD without impairing the perceived quality.
  • The existence of JUADG indicates the degradation should be bounded by this upper limit otherwise it might make the overall quality unacceptable
结论
  • This paper identifies a new critical quality factor called Color-plus-Depth Level-of-Detail (CZLoD) in 3D tele-immersive video.
  • A psychophysical study of the perceptual thresholds of CZLoD is performed and presence of two perceptual thresholds - Just Noticeable Degradation (JNDG) and Just Unacceptable Degradation (JUADG) is demonstrated.
  • Taking CZLoD as a guiding parameter, the authors design an online human-centric QoS adaptation scheme to dynamically adapt the video quality.
  • The authors' experiments show that the adaptation scheme considerably reduces the resource demands while enhancing the perceived visual quality
表格
  • Table1: Table 1
  • Table2: Stimulus block codes as light luminance and sound frequency, was slightly modified in order to measure degradation level by means of comparison. In our study, CZLoD conditions were presented in sequential pairs, one being an unimpaired reference, and one being the same video impaired. The magnitudes of impairment were presented in an ascending order
  • Table3: LCD Monitor Model Acer X222W
  • Table4: Rating scale used to compare videos with and without adaptation
Download tables as Excel
相关工作
  • The ultimate goal of 3D tele-immersion is to enable people to interact across distance just as if they were co-located physically. This is achieved by fusing the 3D representations of geographically distributed users into a virtual reality environment in real time. The history of 3D tele-immersion can be traced back to about a decade ago, when researchers demonstrated the first networked tele-immersive application that could run at 2 to 3 frames per second (fps) [28]. Various e↵orts have been made to improve the e ciency of the systems in diverse components such as depth reconstruction [15][34], coordinated data transport protocol [21], rendering [28], as well as real-time 3D video compression [35]. Despite the notable improvement, tele-immersive systems are still far from becoming a commodity due to the high interactivity demand and heavy computational complexities. In this paper, we tackle the challenge from a di↵erent perspective by examining data redundancy in terms of psychophysical principles. We believe our approaches are orthogonal to the system-centric algorithmic improvements, and thus can be combined to provide greater performance benefits.
基金
  • This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No CNS 0834480
研究对象与分析
adult participants: 16
Participants and Procedures

We followed the ITU standard in conducting the experiment [13]. Sixteen adult participants were recruited from University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, primarily graduate students and sta↵ in the Department of Computer Science1. All had normal or corrected vision

participants: 4
All had normal or corrected vision. Four participants were Indian, three were American, two were Chinese, two were German, three were Bangladeshi, one was Mexican, and one was South African. The sample consisted of 6 women (37.5%) and 10 men (62.5%)

women: 6
Four participants were Indian, three were American, two were Chinese, two were German, three were Bangladeshi, one was Mexican, and one was South African. The sample consisted of 6 women (37.5%) and 10 men (62.5%). Regarding the level of experience with tele-immersive video, the sample consisted of 5 experts (31.25%) and 11 novices (68.75%)

adult participants: 16
We followed the ITU standard in conducting the experiment [13]. Sixteen adult participants were recruited from University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, primarily graduate students and sta↵ in the Department of Computer Science1. All had normal or corrected vision

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