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# Big Data Deep Learning: Challenges and Perspectives

IEEE Access, (2014): 514-525

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Abstract

Deep learning is currently an extremely active research area in machine learning and pattern recognition society. It has gained huge successes in a broad area of applications such as speech recognition, computer vision, and natural language processing. With the sheer size of data available today, big data brings big opportunities and tran...More

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Introduction

**INTRODUCTION Deep learning and Big**

Data are two hottest trends in the rapidly growing digital world.- A deep belief network (DBN) uses a deep architecture that is capable of learning feature representations from both the labeled and unlabeled data presented to it [21].
- Some algorithmic approaches have been explored for large-scale learning: for example, locally connected networks [24], [39], improved optimizers [42], and new structures that can be implemented in parallel [44].

Highlights

**INTRODUCTION Deep learning and Big**

Data are two hottest trends in the rapidly growing digital world- A deep belief network (DBN) uses a deep architecture that is capable of learning feature representations from both the labeled and unlabeled data presented to it [21]
- Experimental results show that with 45 million parameters in a RBM and one million examples, the GPU-based implementation increases the speed of deep belief networks learning by a factor of up to 70, compared to a dual-core CPU implementation [41]
- Large-scale convolutional neural networks learning is often implemented on GPUs with several hundred parallel processing cores
- For parallelizing forward propagation, one or more blocks are assigned for each feature map depending on the size of maps [36]
- Each thread in a block is devoted to a single neuron in a map

Results

- The use of great computing power to speed up the training process has shown significant potential in Big Data deep learning.
- A. LARGE-SCALE DEEP BELIEF NETWORKS Raina et al [41] proposed a GPU-based framework for massively parallelizing unsupervised learning models including DBNs and sparse coding [21].
- B. LARGE-SCALE CONVOLUTIONAL NEURAL NETWORKS CNN is a type of locally connected deep learning methods.
- C. COMBINATION OF DATA- AND MODEL-PARALLEL SCHEMES DistBelief is a software framework recently designed for distributed training and learning in deep networks with very large models and large-scale data sets.
- For large-scale data with high dimensionality, deep learning often involves many densely connected layers with a large number of free parameters.
- This very large scale deep learning system is capable of training with more than 11 billion parameters, which is the largest model reported by far, with much less machines.
- Data and models are divided into blocks that fit with in-memory data; the forward and backward propagations can be implemented effectively in parallel [56], [58], deep learning algorithms are not trivially parallel.
- To build the future deep learning system scalable to Big Data, one needs to develop high performance computing infrastructure-based systems together with theoretically sound parallel learning algorithms or novel architectures.
- Deep learning can leverage both high variety and velocity of Big Data by transfer learning or domain adaption, where training and test data may be sampled from different distributions [99]–[107].

Conclusion

- Glorot et al implemented a stacked denoising auto-encoder based deep architecture for domain adaption, where one trains an unsupervised representation on a large number of unlabeled data from a set of domains, which is applied to train a classifier with few labeled examples from only one domain [100].
- Bengio applied deep learning of multiple level representations for transfer learning where training examples may not well represent test data [99].
- Big Data presents significant challenges to deep learning, including large scale, heterogeneity, noisy labels, and non-stationary distribution, among many others.

- Table1: Summary of recent research progress in large-scale deep learning

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- XIAOTONG LIN is currently a Visiting Assistant Professor with the Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Oakland University, Rochester, MI, USA. She received the Ph.D. degree from the University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS, USA, in 2012, and the M.Sc. degree from the University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA, in 1999. Her research interests include large scale machine learning, data mining, high-performance computing, and bioinformatics.

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