Affective style, psychopathology, and resilience: brain mechanisms and plasticity.

AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST, no. 11 (2000): 1196-1214

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摘要

The brain circuitry underlying emotion includes several territories of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), the amygdala, hippocampus, anterior cingulate, and related structures. In general, the PFC represents emotion in the absence of immediately present incentives and thus plays a crucial role in the anticipation of the future affective consequ...更多

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简介
  • The author reviews a body of evidence that supports the conclusion that individual differences in baseline levels of asymmetric activation in these brain regions are lawfully related to variations in dispositional affective style.
  • The findings from the lesion method when effects of small unilateral lesions are examined and from neuroimaging studies in normal participants and patients with anxiety disorders converge on the conclusion that increases in rightsided activation in various sectors of the PFC are associated with increased negative affect.
重点内容
  • I review a body of evidence that supports the conclusion that individual differences in baseline levels of asymmetric activation in these brain regions are lawfully related to variations in dispositional affective style
  • With regard to the different functional roles of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, and ventromedial PFC, Davidson and Irwin (1999) have suggested, on the basis of considering both human and animal studies, that the ventromedial sector is most likely involved in the representation of elementary positive and negative affective states in the absence of immediately present incentives
  • In a small sample of nine normal participants, Irwin, Anderle, Sutton, Kalin, & Davidson (2000) were able to examine the relation between the magnitude of magnetic resonance signal change in the amygdala in response to aversive compared with neutral pictures and dispositional negative affect on the Positive and Negative Affect Scales
  • The findings from the functional magnetic resonance imaging and positronemission tomography studies of amygdalar function indicate that individual differences in both tonic activation and phasic activation in response to aversive stimuli predict the intensity of dispositional negative affect
  • Recent data highlight the role of particular sectors of the prefrontal cortex in emotion regulation, the regulation of the duration of emotion and the suppression of negative emotion once it is elicited
结果
  • With regard to the different functional roles of the DLPFC, OFC, and vmPFC, Davidson and Irwin (1999) have suggested, on the basis of considering both human and animal studies, that the ventromedial sector is most likely involved in the representation of elementary positive and negative affective states in the absence of immediately present incentives.
  • In adults, Davidson and Tomarken (1989) first noted that the phasic influence of positive and negative emotion elicitors on measures of prefrontal activation asymmetry appeared to be superimposed on more tonic individual differences in the direction and absolute magnitude of asymmetry.
  • These findings support the idea that individual differences in electrophysiological measures of prefrontal activation asymmetry mark some aspect of vulnerability to positive and negative emotion elicitors.
  • In a small sample of nine normal participants, Irwin, Anderle, Sutton, Kalin, & Davidson (2000) were able to examine the relation between the magnitude of MR signal change in the amygdala in response to aversive compared with neutral pictures and dispositional negative affect on the PANAS.
  • These findings indicate that individual differences in resting glucose metabolism in the amygdala are present and that they predict dispositional negative affect among depressed participants.
  • The findings from the fMRI and PET studies of amygdalar function indicate that individual differences in both tonic activation and phasic activation in response to aversive stimuli predict the intensity of dispositional negative affect.
  • In a recent study, Larson et al (1998) examined relations between individual differences in prefrontal activation asymmetry and the emotion-modulated startle.
  • The findings from this study were consistent with the hypothesis and indicated that individual differences in prefrontal asymmetry are associated with the time course of affective responding, the recovery after emotional challenge.
结论
  • The findings from these studies indicate that individual differences in prefrontal activation may play an important role in emotion regulation.
  • Individual differences in patterns of prefrontal and amygdalar activation are related to behavioral and biological constituents of affective style and emotion regulation.
基金
  • Has argued that variations m some of these parameters in particular response systems are especially relevant to vulnerability to mood, anxiety, and other disorders and to resilience
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