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piezoforce microscopy is based on atomic force microscopy, where an AC electric field is applied to a scanning conducting probe in contact with a ferroelectric thin film surface

Direct Observation of Ferroelectric Domains in Solution-Processed CH3NH3PbI3 Perovskite Thin Films.

JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY LETTERS, no. 19 (2014): 3335-3339

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摘要

A new generation of solid-state photovoltaics is being made possible by the use of organometal-trihalide perovskite materials. While some of these materials are expected to be ferroelectric, almost nothing is known about their ferroelectric properties experimentally. Using piezoforce microscopy (PFM), here we show unambiguously, for the f...更多

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简介
  • Just Accepted “Just Accepted” manuscripts have been peer-reviewed and accepted for publication.
  • The authors have investigated smooth, dense β-MAPbI3 thin films using piezoforce microscopy (PFM)19 — an ideal tool for probing local ferroelectric response at the domain scale.
  • PFM is based on atomic force microscopy (AFM), where an AC electric field is applied to a scanning conducting probe in contact with a ferroelectric thin film surface.
重点内容
  • Just Accepted “Just Accepted” manuscripts have been peer-reviewed and accepted for publication
  • We have investigated smooth, dense β-MAPbI3 thin films using piezoforce microscopy (PFM)19 — an ideal tool for probing local ferroelectric response at the domain scale
  • PFM is based on atomic force microscopy (AFM), where an AC electric field is applied to a scanning conducting probe in contact with a ferroelectric thin film surface
  • The conventional MAI solution single dipping, or spin-coating, process for the fabrication of planar solar cells allows the conversion reaction to occur in the presence of the solution over a relatively long period of time, forming relatively rough thin films with interconnected β-MAPbI3 particles and voids[21,22]
  • Ferroelectric domains in the β-MAPbI3 thin films are clearly indicated by the complete 180 ̊ phase-contrast observed throughout Fig. 2C
  • Underneath each topography image is a simultaneously acquired corresponding PFM piezoresponse map, each obtained after a prior scan that poled the same area with pure DC bias
结果
  • In this manner the authors have directly imaged domains and domains walls in β-MAPbI3 thin films directly using PFM, and an attempt to switch the ferroelectric domains reversibly using scanning DC
  • The smooth surface topography in the β-MAPbI3 thin film is clearly evident from the AFM image in Fig. 1D, and analysis of local surface topography data reveals a RMS roughness of ~12 nm.
  • The desirable attributes in these β-MAPbI3 perovskite thin films — phase-pure, high crystallinity, dense, coarse-grained, smooth — are due to the new SSCA protocol (Fig. 1A), allowing them to perform careful PFM experiments.
  • The conventional MAI solution single dipping, or spin-coating, process for the fabrication of planar solar cells allows the conversion reaction to occur in the presence of the solution over a relatively long period of time, forming relatively rough thin films with interconnected β-MAPbI3 particles and voids[21,22].
  • Ferroelectric domains in the β-MAPbI3 thin films are clearly indicated by the complete 180 ̊ phase-contrast observed throughout Fig. 2C
  • Underneath each topography image is a simultaneously acquired corresponding PFM piezoresponse map, each obtained after a prior scan that poled the same area with pure DC bias.
  • This experimental demonstration of the presence of ferroelectric domains in β-MAPbI3 thin films and their reversible switching has several implications, some of which are discussed below.
结论
  • Based on some theoretical work, Frost et al.[15,18] hypothesize that polarized ferroelectric domains within the β-MAPbI3 film may act as small internal p-n junctions, aiding the separation of photo-excited electron and hole pairs.
  • The presence and switching of the ferroelectric domains could play an important role in unraveling the mechanisms responsible for the observed GDC effect in these thin films.
  • These experimental results encourage further investigations into the local ferroelectric behavior of hybrid perovskites, in particular through in situ characterization of photo-effects, as well as exploring domain engineering.
基金
  • YZ and NPP thank the NSF (grant no
  • DMR-1305913) for financial support, and Dr H.F
  • The PFM work by YK and LY is supported by DOE-BES-ESPM (grant no
  • BDH acknowledges support from the iNano Visiting Professor program, Aarhus University, Denmark
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