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The overall effect could be promoting a mindset of abundance as opposed to scarcity in regard to the concept of money, if simultaneously accompa‐ nied by Guaranteed Basic Income initiatives that covered basic survival needs for all individuals and enabled a higher-level cognitive...

Blockchain : blueprint for a new economy

(2015)

Cited: 2660|Views163
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Abstract

Blockchain 1.0 in Practical Use Blockchain is already cash for the Internet, a digital payment system, and it may become the “Internet of Money,” connecting finances in the way that the Internet of Things (IoT) connects machines. Currency and payments make up the first and most obvious application. Alternative currencies make sense based ...More

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Introduction
  • Some of the ter‐ minology that broadly refers to the Blockchain 2.0 space can include Bitcoin 2.0, Bit‐ coin 2.0 protocols, smart contracts, smart property, Dapps, DAOs, and DACs. Whereas Blockchain 1.0 is for the decentralization of money and payments, Block‐ chain 2.0 is for the decentralization of markets more generally, and contemplates the transfer of many other kinds of assets beyond currency using the blockchain, from the creation of a unit of value through every time it is transferred or divided.
Highlights
  • An interesting concept related to intellectual property and new ideas is the “self-bootstrapped organization.”[72] This is a new business idea arising from the blockchain or via a person, in which the project idea spins out to become a stand‐ alone entity with some standardized smart-contract, self-bootstrapping software to crowdfund itself based on a mission statement; operate; pay dividends or other remu‐ neration back to crowdfunding investors; receive feedback through blockchain prediction markets and decentralized blockchain voting; and eventually dissolve or have periodic confirmation-of-instantiation votes
  • Blockchain technology could be quite complementary in a possibility space for the future world that includes both centralized and decentralized models
  • Over time, blockchain technology could exist in a larger ecosystem with both centralized and decentralized models
  • In his book Denationalization of Money, economist Friedrich Hayek envisions complementary currencies competing for consumer attention. He saw mul‐ tiple currencies at the level of financial institutions, but as everyone has their own news outlets through their own blog, Twitter account, YouTube channel, and Instagram handle, so too could there be arbitrarily many cryptocurrencies, at the level of individuals or special interest groups and communities. Each of these crypto‐ currencies could exist in its local economy, fully relevant and valid for value exchange and economic operation in that local context, like the Let’s Talk Bitcoin community coin, musical artistÕs Tatianacoin, or community coin in your local farmers market, DIY maker lab, or school district
  • The overall effect could be promoting a mindset of abundance as opposed to scarcity in regard to the concept of money, if simultaneously accompa‐ nied by Guaranteed Basic Income (GBI) initiatives that covered basic survival needs for all individuals and enabled a higher-level cognitive focus
Results
  • Blockchain technology offers the ability to reinvent identity authentication and secure access in ways that are much more granular, flexible, and oriented to real-time demand than are currently possible, elegantly integrating physical-world hardware technologies with digital Internet-based software technologies.[52] Smart property transacted with blockchains is a completely new kind of concept.
  • This has been fine for the Blockchain 1.0 implementation of currency and payment transactions, but for the more complicated tier of Blockchain 2.0 applications such as the recording and trans‐ fer of more complex assets like smart property and smart contracts, the authors need the third step—a more robust scripting system—and Turing completeness.
  • Ethereum defines a smart contract/Dapp as a transaction protocol that executes the terms of a contract or group of contracts on a cryptographic blockchain.[65] The authors' working definition of a Dapp is an application that runs on a network in a dis‐ tributed fashion with participant information securely protected and operation execution decentralized across network nodes.
  • An interesting concept related to intellectual property and new ideas is the “self-bootstrapped organization.”[72] This is a new business idea arising from the blockchain or via a person, in which the project idea spins out to become a stand‐ alone entity with some standardized smart-contract, self-bootstrapping software to crowdfund itself based on a mission statement; operate; pay dividends or other remu‐ neration back to crowdfunding investors; receive feedback through blockchain prediction markets and decentralized blockchain voting; and eventually dissolve or have periodic confirmation-of-instantiation votes.
  • The authors could accomplish this by adding blockchain technology as the embedded eco‐ nomic payments layer and the tool for the administration of quanta, implemented through automated smart contracts, Dapps, DAOs, and DACs. The automated operation of huge classes of tasks could relieve humans because the tasks would instead be handled by a universal, decentralized, globally distributed computing sys‐ tem.
Conclusion
  • Currency could be reconceptualized in the context of what kinds of actions it enables in a community as opposed to exclusively being a means of obtaining and storing value
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  • Melanie Swan is the Founder of the Institute for Blockchain Studies and a Contem‐ porary Philosophy MA candidate at Kingston University London and Université Paris VIII. She has a traditional markets background with an MBA in Finance from the Wharton School at the University of Pennsylvania, and work experience at Fidel‐ ity and JP Morgan. She has a new markets background as an entrepreneur and advi‐ sor to startups GroupPurchase and Prosper, and developed virtual world digital asset valuation and accounting principles for Deloitte. She was involved in the early stages of the Quantified Self movement, and founded DIYgenomics in 2010, an organiza‐ tion that pioneered the crowdsourced health research study. She is an instructor at Singularity University, an Affiliate Scholar at the Institute for Ethics and Emerging Technologies, and a contributor to the Edge’s Annual Essay Question.
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