AI帮你理解科学

AI 生成解读视频

AI抽取解析论文重点内容自动生成视频


pub
生成解读视频

AI 溯源

AI解析本论文相关学术脉络


Master Reading Tree
生成 溯源树

AI 精读

AI抽取本论文的概要总结


微博一下
The main question addressed in this article is in two parts: One, in what ways and to what extent do the Snowden disclosures indicate that Big Data practices are becoming increasingly important to surveillance? The answer, clearly, is yes, they are

Surveillance, Snowden, And Big Data: Capacities, Consequences, Critique

BIG DATA & SOCIETY, no. 2 (2014)

被引用0|浏览15
下载 PDF 全文
引用
微博一下

摘要

The Snowden revelations about National Security Agency surveillance, starting in 2013, along with the ambiguous complicity of internet companies and the international controversies that followed provide a perfect segue into contemporary conundrums of surveillance and Big Data. Attention has shifted from late C20th information technologies...更多

代码

数据

简介
  • Snowden disclosures and Big Data

    The Snowden revelations about National Security Agency (NSA) surveillance, starting in June 2013, along with the ambiguous complicity of internet companies and the international controversies that followed illustrate perfectly the ways that Big Data has a supportive relationship with surveillance.
  • Two main questions are addressed here: One, in what ways and to what extent do the Snowden disclosures indicate that Big Data practices are becoming increasingly important to surveillance?
重点内容
  • The Snowden revelations about National Security Agency (NSA) surveillance, starting in June 2013, along with the ambiguous complicity of internet companies and the international controversies that followed illustrate perfectly the ways that Big Data has a supportive relationship with surveillance
  • Two main questions are addressed here: One, in what ways and to what extent do the Snowden disclosures indicate that Big Data practices are becoming increasingly important to surveillance? Queries about Big Data practices in relation to surveillance and public concern about the activities of the NSA predate Snowden, (Andrejevic and Gates, 2014)
  • This contributes to cybernetic-type control, where what is assumed to be normal and correct behavior is embedded in circuits of consumer practices. This is significant for what Snowden has revealed, as we shall see. This argument suggests the need for a shift in focus from some accounts that refer more directly to organizations and individuals, to ones that acknowledge – as privacy advocates and others have argued for some time – that online subjects are difficult to define, are not really amenable to the kinds of individualist characterizations common in some ‘‘privacy’’ discourses and are hard to connect with the kinds of actors that might be called upon to raise questions about Big Data surveillance in the political realm
  • The main question addressed in this article is in two parts: One, in what ways and to what extent do the Snowden disclosures indicate that Big Data practices are becoming increasingly important to surveillance? The answer, clearly, is yes, they are
结果
  • Queries about Big Data practices in relation to surveillance and public concern about the activities of the NSA predate Snowden, (Andrejevic and Gates, 2014).
  • The present task is not to catalogue potentially beneficial aspects of Big Data but rather to focus attention on what sorts of surveillance issues are raised – especially ones that prompt civil liberties or privacy questions – in new ways by this re-structuring of information.
  • This argument suggests the need for a shift in focus from some accounts that refer more directly to organizations and individuals, to ones that acknowledge – as privacy advocates and others have argued for some time – that online subjects are difficult to define, are not really amenable to the kinds of individualist characterizations common in some ‘‘privacy’’ discourses and are hard to connect with the kinds of actors that might be called upon to raise questions about Big Data surveillance in the political realm.
  • The question of Big Data, understood in relation to the Snowden disclosures, has generated unprecedented public interest in surveillance in many countries around the world.
  • The main question addressed in this article is in two parts: One, in what ways and to what extent do the Snowden disclosures indicate that Big Data practices are becoming increasingly important to surveillance?
  • The evidence discussed here suggests strongly that Big Data practices are skewing surveillance even more towards a reliance on technological ‘‘solutions,’’ and that this both privileges organizations, large and small, whether public or private, reinforces the shift in emphasis towards control rather than discipline and relies increasingly on predictive analytics to anticipate and preempt.
  • It is these matters in particular that attract critique, especially in relation to anticipatory and preemptive approaches common to Big Data mindsets and activities and amplifying what is a long-term surveillance trend.
结论
  • Snowden’s revelations have done good service in showing how far state-based surveillance extends and how much it depends on Big Data practices that implicate corporate bodies and connect directly with everyday practices of ordinary internet and cellphone users.
  • If this was understood by some to mean that more generalized – or, following Gilles Deleuze, ‘‘rhizomic’’ – surveillance spells less state surveillance activity, the Snowden revelations are rapidly dispelling that illusion
基金
  • This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
引用论文
  • Agamben G (2013) For a theory of destituent power. Critical
    Google ScholarFindings
  • Legal Thinking. Available at: http://criticallegalthinking.com/2014/02/05/theory-destituent-power/ (accessed 19 June 2014). Amoore L (2011) Data derivatives: On the emergence of a security-risk calculus for our times. Theory, Culture and Society 28:24–43.
    Locate open access versionFindings
  • Amoore L (2014) Security and the claim to privacy. International Political Sociology 8(1): 108–112. Andrejevic M and Gates K (2014) Big Data surveillance: Introduction. Surveillance & Society 12(2): 185–196.
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
  • Ball KS and Snider L (eds) (2013) The Surveillance-Industrial Complex: A Political Economy of Surveillance. London: Routledge.
    Google ScholarFindings
  • Bankston KS and Soltani A (2014) Tiny constables and the cost of surveillance: Making cents out of the United States vs Jones. Yale Law Journal Online. January 09. Available at: www.yalelawjournal.org/the-yale-law-journal-pocketpart/constitutional-law/tiny-constables-and-the-cost-ofsurveillance:-making-cents-out-of-united-states-v.-jones/ (accessed 19 June 2014).
    Locate open access versionFindings
  • Bauman Z and Lyon D (2013) Liquid Surveillance: A Conversation. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Google ScholarFindings
  • Bennett CJ, Haggerty K, Lyon D, et al. (eds) (2014) Transparent Lives: Surveillance in Canada. Edmonton: Athabasca University Press.
    Google ScholarFindings
  • Bertolucci J (2013) Big Data’s new buzzword: Datafication. Information Week. February 25. Available at: www. informationweek.com/big-data/big-data-analytics/bigdatas-new-buzzword-datafication/d/d-id/1108797?/ (accessed 19 June 2014).
    Locate open access versionFindings
  • Boyd D and Crawford K (2012) Critical questions for Big Data: Provocations for a cultural, technological and scholarly phenomenon. Information, Communication and Society 15(5): 662–67Available at: www.tandfonline. com/doi/abs/10.1080/1369118X.2012.678878#.UthCMv ZA_EV/ (accessed 19 June 2014).
    Locate open access versionFindings
  • Butler D (2013) When Google got flu wrong. Nature. 494(7936). Available at: www.nature.com/news/whengoogle-got-flu-wrong-1.12413/ (accessed 19 June 2014).
    Locate open access versionFindings
  • CBC (2014) Canadians’ mental health info routinely shared with FBI, U.S. Customs. Available at: www.cbc.ca/news/ canada/windsor/canadians-mental-health-info-routinelyshared-with-fbi-u-s-customs-1.2609159/ (accessed 19 June 2014).
    Findings
  • Cheney-Lippold J (2011) New algorithmic identity: Soft biopolitics and the modulation of control. Theory, Culture and Society 28(6): 164–181.
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
  • Citron D (2008) Technological due process. Washington University Law Review 85(6): 1249–1313.
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
  • de Goede M (2014) The politics of privacy in the age of preemptive security. International Political Sociology 8(1): 100–104.
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
  • Deleuze G (1992) Postscript on the societies of control. October 59: 3–7.
    Google ScholarFindings
  • FAS (Federation of American Scientists) (2014) Available at: www.fas.org/irp/budget/index.html?PHPSESSID1⁄470809 e6b347db7b2122df1ef24d743e0/ (accessed 19 June 2014).
    Findings
  • Freeze C (2014) Canada’s metadata collection worries critics. The Globe and Mail. March 27. Available at: http://m.theglobeandmail.com/news/world/canadas-metadata-collection-worries-critics/article17714407/?service1⁄4mobile/ (accessed 19 June 2014).
    Locate open access versionFindings
  • Gallagher S (2013) What the NSA can do with ‘‘Big Data.’’ Ars Electronica. June 11. Available at: http://arstechnica.com/information-technology/2013/06/what-the-nsa-cando-with-big-data/ (accessed 19 June 2014).
    Findings
  • Gandy O (1993) The Panoptic Sort: A Political Economy of Personal Information. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
    Google ScholarFindings
  • Gandy O (2012) Statistical surveillance: Remote sensing in the digital age. In: Ball KS, Haggerty K and Lyon D
    Google ScholarFindings
  • (eds) Routledge Handbook of Surveillance Studies. London and New York: Routledge, pp. 125–132.
    Google ScholarFindings
  • Harcourt B (2007) Against Prediction: Profiling, Policing and Punishing in an Actuarial Age. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Kerr I and Earle J (2013) Prediction, preemption, presumption: How Big Data threatens big picture privacy. Stanford Law Review 66(65). Available at: www.stanfordlawreview.org/online/privacy-and-big-data/prediction-preemptionpresumption/ (accessed 19 June 2014). Kitchin R (2014) Big Data and human geography: Opportunities, challenges and risks. Dialogues in Human Geography 3(3): 262–267. Kitchin R (forthcoming) The Data Revolution: Big Data, Open Data, Data Infrastructures and Their Consequences. London: Sage.
    Locate open access versionFindings
  • Lanchester J (2013) The Snowden files: Why the British public should be worried about GCHQ. The Guardian October 3. Available at: www.theguardian.com/world/ 2013/oct/03/edward-snowden-files-john-lanchester/ (accessed 19 June 2014).
    Locate open access versionFindings
  • Lazer D, Kennedy R, King G, et al. (2014) The parable of Google flu: Traps in Big Data analysis. Science 343: 1203– 1205. Available at: www.sciencemag.org/content/343/ 6176/1203.full/ (accessed 19 June 2014).
    Findings
  • Lupton D (2013) Swimming or drowning in the data ocean? Thoughts on the metaphors of Big Data. Available at: http://simplysociology.wordpress.com/2013/10/29/swimming-or-drowning-in-the-data-ocean-thoughts-onthe-metaphors-of-big-data/ (accessed 19 June 2014).
    Findings
  • Lyon D (2001) Surveillance Society: Monitoring Everyday Life. Berkshire: Open University Press.
    Google ScholarFindings
  • Lyon D (2007) Surveillance Studies: An Overview. Cambridge: Polity.
    Google ScholarFindings
  • Maki K (2011) Neoliberal deviants and surveillance: Welfare Recipients under the watchful eye of Ontario Works. Surveillance & Society 9(1/2): 47–63. Available at: http://library.queensu.ca/ojs/index.php/surveillance-and-society/article/view/deviants (accessed 19 June 2014).
    Findings
  • Mattelart A and Vitalis A (2014) Le Profilage des Populations: Du Livret Ouvrier au Cybercontrole. Paris: La Decouverte.
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
  • Meyer-Schonberger V and Cukier K (2012) Big Data: A Revolution that will Transform How we Work, Think and Live. New York: Mariner.
    Google ScholarFindings
  • Mosco V (2014) To the Cloud: Big Data in a Turbulent World. New York: Paradigm.
    Google ScholarFindings
  • Narayanan A and Vallor S (2014) Why software engineering courses should include ethics coverage. Communications of the ACM 57(3): 23–25.
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
  • Newell BC (forthcoming) The massive metadata machine: Liberty, power and mass surveillance in the U.S. and Europe. I/S: A Journal of Law and Policy for the Information Society.
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
  • Raley R (2013) Dataveillance and countervailance. In: Gitelman L (ed.) Raw Data Is an Oxymoron. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, pp. 121–145.
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
  • Regalado A (2013) The data made me do it. Technology Review May 03. Available at: www.technologyreview. com/news/514346/the-data-made-me-do-it/ (accessed 19 June 2014).
    Findings
  • Richards NM and King J (2013) Three paradoxes of Big Data. Stanford Law Review Online 66(41): 41–46.
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
  • Ruppert E (2012) The governmental topologies of database devices. Theory, Culture and Society 29(4–5): 116–136.
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
  • Savage M (2013) Digital fields, networks and capital. In: Orton-Johnson K and Prior N (eds) Digital Sociology: Critical Perspectives. Houndmills, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
  • Savage M and Burrows R (2007) The coming crisis of empirical sociology. Sociology 44(5): 885–899.
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
  • Schneier B (2012) Liars and Outliers: Enabling the Trust that Society needs to Thrive. New York: Wiley.
    Google ScholarFindings
  • Schneier B (2014) CSEC analysis of IP and user data. Available at: www.schneier.com/blog/archives/2014/02/ csec_surveillan.html/ (accessed 19 June 2014).
    Findings
  • Stoddart E (2014) (In)visibility before privacy: A theological ethics of surveillance as social sorting. Studies in Christian Ethics 27(1): 33–49.
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
  • Trottier D (2012) Social Media as Surveillance. London: Ashgate.
    Google ScholarFindings
  • Turow J (2012) The Daily You: How the New Advertising Industry Is Defining Your Identity and Your Worth. New Haven, CN: Yale University Press.
    Google ScholarFindings
  • van Dijck J (2014) Datafication, dataism and dataveillance: Big Data between scientific paradigm and ideology. Surveillance & Society 12(2). Available at: http://library.queensu.ca/ojs/index.php/surveillance-and-society/article/view/datafication/ (accessed 19 June 2014).
    Locate open access versionFindings
  • White House (2014) Big Data and the future of privacy. Available at: www.whitehouse.gov/blog/2014/01/23/bigdata-and-future-privacy/ (accessed 19 June 2014).
    Findings
  • Zedner (2009) Security. London and New York: Routledge.
    Google ScholarFindings
作者
您的评分 :
0

 

标签
评论
数据免责声明
页面数据均来自互联网公开来源、合作出版商和通过AI技术自动分析结果,我们不对页面数据的有效性、准确性、正确性、可靠性、完整性和及时性做出任何承诺和保证。若有疑问,可以通过电子邮件方式联系我们:report@aminer.cn
小科