An improved optimization algorithm of the three-compartment model with spillover and partial volume corrections for dynamic FDG PET images of small animal hearts in vivo.

PHYSICS IN MEDICINE AND BIOLOGY(2018)

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Abstract
The three-compartment model with spillover (SP) and partial volume (PV) corrections has been widely used for noninvasive kinetic parameter studies of dynamic 2-[F-18] fluoro-2deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography images of small animal hearts in vivo. However, the approach still suffers from estimation uncertainty or slow convergence caused by the commonly used optimization algorithms. The aim of this study was to develop an improved optimization algorithm with better estimation performance. Femoral artery blood samples, image-derived input functions from heart ventricles and myocardial time-activity curves (TACs) were derived from data on 16 C57BL/6 mice obtained from the UCLA Mouse Quantitation Program. Parametric equations of the average myocardium and the blood pool TACs with SP and PV corrections in a three-compartment tracer kinetic model were formulated. A hybrid method integrating artificial immune-system and interior-reflective Newton methods were developed to solve the equations. Two penalty functions and one late time-point tail vein blood sample were used to constrain the objective function. The estimation accuracy of the method was validated by comparing results with experimental values using the errors in the areas under curves (AUCs) of the model corrected input function (MCIF) and the F-18-FDG influx constant K-i. Moreover, the elapsed time was used to measure the convergence speed. The overall AUC error of MCIF for the 16 mice averaged -1.4 +/- 8.2%, with correlation coefficients of 0.9706. Similar results can be seen in the overall Ki error percentage, which was 0.4 +/- 5.8% with a correlation coefficient of 0.9912. The t-test P value for both showed no significant difference. The mean and standard deviation of the MCIF AUC and Ki percentage errors have lower values compared to the previously published methods. The computation time of the hybrid method is also several times lower than using just a stochastic algorithm. The proposed method significantly improved the model estimation performance in terms of the accuracy of the MCIF and Ki, as well as the convergence speed.
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Key words
dynamic FDG PET,optimization algorithms,model corrected input function,FDG influx constant
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