# Modeling Aspects of Planar Multi-Mode Antennas for Direction-of-Arrival Estimation

IEEE Sensors Journal（2018）

Abstract

Multi-mode antennas are an alternative to classical antenna arrays and, hence, a promising emerging sensor technology for a vast variety of applications in the areas of array signal processing and digital communications. An unsolved problem is to describe the radiation pattern of multi-mode antennas in the closed analytic form based on calibration measurements or on electromagnetic field (EMF) simulation data. As a solution, we investigate two modeling methods: one is based on the array interpolation technique (AIT) and the other one is based on wavefield modeling (WM). Both the methods are able to accurately interpolate quantized EMF data of a given multi-mode antenna, in our case a planar four-port antenna developed for the 6-8.5-GHz range. Since the modeling methods inherently depend on parameter sets, we investigate the influence of the parameter choice on the accuracy of both models. Furthermore, we evaluate the impact of modeling errors for coherent maximum-likelihood direction-of-arrival estimation given different model parameters. The numerical results are presented for a single polarization component. Simulations reveal that the estimation bias introduced by model errors is subjected to the chosen model parameters. Finally, we provide the optimized sets of AIT and WM parameters for the multi-mode antenna under investigation. With these parameter sets, EMF data samples can be reproduced in an interpolated form with high angular resolution.

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Key words

Characteristic modes,array interpolation technique,wavefield modeling,transformation error,direction-of-arrival,maximum-likelihood estimation

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