# Survey of Dropout Methods for Deep Neural Networks

arXiv: Neural and Evolutionary Computing, 2019.

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Abstract:

Dropout methods are a family of stochastic techniques used in neural network training or inference that have generated significant research interest and are widely used in practice. They have been successfully applied in neural network regularization, model compression, and in measuring the uncertainty of neural network outputs. While ori...More

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Introduction

- Deep neural networks are a topic of widespread interest in contemporary artificial intelligence and signal processing.
- The behaviour of standard dropout during training for a neural network layer is given by: y = f (Wx) ◦ m, mi ∼ Bernoulli(1 − p) where y is the layer output, f (·) is the activation function, W is the layer weight matrix, x is the layer input, and m is the layer dropout mask, with each element mi being 0 with probability p.

Highlights

- Deep neural networks are a topic of widespread interest in contemporary artificial intelligence and signal processing
- A wide range of stochastic techniques inspired by the original dropout method have been proposed for use with deep learning models
- We have described a wide range of advances in dropout methods above
- It is generally accepted that standard dropout can regularize a wide range of neural network models, but there is room to achieve either faster training convergence or better final performance
- The growth of convolutional and recurrent neural networks in practice has prompted the development of specialized methods that perform better than standard dropout on specific kinds of neural networks
- The growth of Bayesian interpretations of dropout methods over the last few years points to new opportunities in theoretical justifications of dropout and similar stochastic methods, which corresponds to a broader trend of Bayesian and variational techniques advancing research into deep neural networks

Results

- The authors show that training a neural network with standard dropout is equivalent to optimizing a variational objective between an approximate distribution and the posterior of a deep Gaussian process, which is a Bayesian machine learning model.
- This section describes significant dropout methods that, like standard dropout, regularize dense feedforward neural network layers during training.
- Several proposed dropout methods seek to improve regularization or speed up convergence by making dropout adaptive, that is tuning dropout probabilities during training based on neuron weights or activations.
- Convolutional neural network layers require different regularization methods than standard dropout in order to generalize well [13, 38].
- The authors show that if dropout is seen as a variational Monte Carlo approximation to a Bayesian posterior, the natural way to apply it to recurrent layers is to generate a dropout mask that zeroes out both feedforward and recurrent connections for each training sequence, but to keep the same mask for each time step in the sequence.
- This property means that dropout methods can be applied in compressing neural network models by reducing the number of parameters needed to perform effectively.
- A deep Gaussian process is a Bayesian machine learning model that would normally produce a probability distribution as its output, and applying standard dropout at test time can be used to estimate characteristics of this underlying distribution.
- It is generally accepted that standard dropout can regularize a wide range of neural network models, but there is room to achieve either faster training convergence or better final performance.

Conclusion

- There are opportunities to develop improved methods that are specialized for particular kinds of networks or that use more advanced approaches for selecting neurons to drop.
- The growth of Bayesian interpretations of dropout methods over the last few years points to new opportunities in theoretical justifications of dropout and similar stochastic methods, which corresponds to a broader trend of Bayesian and variational techniques advancing research into deep neural networks.

Summary

- Deep neural networks are a topic of widespread interest in contemporary artificial intelligence and signal processing.
- The behaviour of standard dropout during training for a neural network layer is given by: y = f (Wx) ◦ m, mi ∼ Bernoulli(1 − p) where y is the layer output, f (·) is the activation function, W is the layer weight matrix, x is the layer input, and m is the layer dropout mask, with each element mi being 0 with probability p.
- The authors show that training a neural network with standard dropout is equivalent to optimizing a variational objective between an approximate distribution and the posterior of a deep Gaussian process, which is a Bayesian machine learning model.
- This section describes significant dropout methods that, like standard dropout, regularize dense feedforward neural network layers during training.
- Several proposed dropout methods seek to improve regularization or speed up convergence by making dropout adaptive, that is tuning dropout probabilities during training based on neuron weights or activations.
- Convolutional neural network layers require different regularization methods than standard dropout in order to generalize well [13, 38].
- The authors show that if dropout is seen as a variational Monte Carlo approximation to a Bayesian posterior, the natural way to apply it to recurrent layers is to generate a dropout mask that zeroes out both feedforward and recurrent connections for each training sequence, but to keep the same mask for each time step in the sequence.
- This property means that dropout methods can be applied in compressing neural network models by reducing the number of parameters needed to perform effectively.
- A deep Gaussian process is a Bayesian machine learning model that would normally produce a probability distribution as its output, and applying standard dropout at test time can be used to estimate characteristics of this underlying distribution.
- It is generally accepted that standard dropout can regularize a wide range of neural network models, but there is room to achieve either faster training convergence or better final performance.
- There are opportunities to develop improved methods that are specialized for particular kinds of networks or that use more advanced approaches for selecting neurons to drop.
- The growth of Bayesian interpretations of dropout methods over the last few years points to new opportunities in theoretical justifications of dropout and similar stochastic methods, which corresponds to a broader trend of Bayesian and variational techniques advancing research into deep neural networks.

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