Contribution of Palmitic Acid to Epidermal Morphogenesis and Lipid Barrier Formation in Human Skin Equivalents.
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES（2019）
The outermost barrier layer of the skin is the stratum corneum (SC), which consists of corneocytes embedded in a lipid matrix. Biosynthesis of barrier lipids occurs de novo in the epidermis or is performed with externally derived lipids. Hence, in vitro developed human skin equivalents (HSEs) are developed with culture medium that is supplemented with free fatty acids (FFAs). Nevertheless, the lipid barrier formation in HSEs remains altered compared to native human skin (NHS). The aim of this study is to decipher the role of medium supplemented saturated FFA palmitic acid (PA) on morphogenesis and lipid barrier formation in HSEs. Therefore, HSEs were developed with 100% (25 mu M), 10%, or 1% PA. In HSEs supplemented with reduced PA level, the early differentiation was delayed and epidermal activation was increased. Nevertheless, a similar SC lipid composition in all HSEs was detected. Additionally, the lipid organization was comparable for lamellar and lateral organization, irrespective of PA concentration. As compared to NHS, the level of monounsaturated lipids was increased and the FFA to ceramide ratio was drastically reduced in HSEs. This study describes the crucial role of PA in epidermal morphogenesis and elucidates the role of PA in lipid barrier formation of HSEs.更多
primary cell culture,artificial skin,bioengineering,palmitic acid,free fatty acid,ceramide,lipid metabolism,mass spectrometry