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# Self-supervised Learning: Generative or Contrastive

IEEE Transaction on Knowledge and Data Engineering, (2021)

Keywords

Abstract

Deep supervised learning has achieved great success in the last decade. However, its deficiencies of dependence on manual labels and vulnerability to attacks have driven people to explore a better solution. As an alternative, self-supervised learning attracts many researchers for its soaring performance on representation learning in the...More

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Introduction

- Deep neural networks [81] have shown outstanding performance on various machine learning tasks, especially on supervised learning in computer vision, natural language processing and graph learning.
- There exist several comprehensive reviews related to Pre-trained Language Models [113], Generative Adversarial Networks [151], Autoencoder and contrastive learning for visual representation [68].
- Hu et al [62] proposes GPT-GNN, a generative pre-training method for graph neural network.

Highlights

- Deep neural networks [81] have shown outstanding performance on various machine learning tasks, especially on supervised learning in computer vision, natural language processing and graph learning
- The supervised learning is trained over a specific task with a large manually labeled dataset which is randomly divided into training, validatiton and test sets
- There exist several comprehensive reviews related to Pre-trained Language Models [113], Generative Adversarial Networks [151], Autoencoder and contrastive learning for visual representation [68]
- In Section 2, we introduce the preliminary knowledge for computer vision, natural language processing, and graph learning
- A similar work to aggregate similar vectors together in embedding space is vector quantization (VQ)-Variational Autoencoders (VAE) [118], [143] that we introduce in Section 3
- The inception of adversarial representation learning should be attributed to Generative Adversarial Networks (GAN) [114], which proposes the adversarial training framework

Results

- Variational auto-encoding models have been employed in node representation learning on graphs.
- Deep InfoMax [59] is the first one to explicitly model mutual information through a contrastive learning task, which maximize the MI between a local patch and its global context.
- It randomly samples two different views of an image to generate the local feature vector and context vector, Fig. 8: Deep Graph InfoMax [147] uses a readout function to generate summary vector s1, and puts it into a discriminator with node 1’s embedding x1 and corrupted embedding x1 respectively to identify which embedding is the real embedding.
- As what CMC has done to improve Deep InfoMax, in [55] authors propose a contrastive multi-view representation learning method for graph.
- Researchers borrow ideas from semi-supervised learning to produce pseudo labels via cluster-based discrimination, and achieve rather good performance on representations.
- Clustering-based discrimination may help in the generalization of other pre-trained models, transferring models from pretext objectives to real tasks better.
- M3S [131] adopts the similar idea to perform DeepCluster-based self-supervised pre-training for better semi-supervised prediction.
- A more radical step is made by BYOL [48], which discards negative sampling in self-supervised learning but achieve an even better result over InfoMin. For contrastive learning methods the authors mention above, they learn representations by predicting different views of the same image and cast the prediction problem directly in representation space.
- No matter how self-supervised learning models improve, they are still only powerful feature extractor, and to transfer to downstream task the authors still need abundant labels.
- In Section 4.2.1, the authors have introduced M3S [?] that attempts to combine cluster-based contrastive pre-training and downstream semi-supervised learning.

Conclusion

- They propose a 3-step framework: 1) Do self-supervised pre-training as SimCLR v1, with some minor architecture modification and a deeper ResNet. 2) Fine-tune the last few layers with only 1% or 10% of original ImageNet labels.
- A reason for the generative model’s success in self-supervised learning is its ability to fit the data distribution, based on which varied downstream tasks can be conducted.
- The inception of adversarial representation learning should be attributed to Generative Adversarial Networks (GAN) [114], which proposes the adversarial training framework.

Summary

- Deep neural networks [81] have shown outstanding performance on various machine learning tasks, especially on supervised learning in computer vision, natural language processing and graph learning.
- There exist several comprehensive reviews related to Pre-trained Language Models [113], Generative Adversarial Networks [151], Autoencoder and contrastive learning for visual representation [68].
- Hu et al [62] proposes GPT-GNN, a generative pre-training method for graph neural network.
- Variational auto-encoding models have been employed in node representation learning on graphs.
- Deep InfoMax [59] is the first one to explicitly model mutual information through a contrastive learning task, which maximize the MI between a local patch and its global context.
- It randomly samples two different views of an image to generate the local feature vector and context vector, Fig. 8: Deep Graph InfoMax [147] uses a readout function to generate summary vector s1, and puts it into a discriminator with node 1’s embedding x1 and corrupted embedding x1 respectively to identify which embedding is the real embedding.
- As what CMC has done to improve Deep InfoMax, in [55] authors propose a contrastive multi-view representation learning method for graph.
- Researchers borrow ideas from semi-supervised learning to produce pseudo labels via cluster-based discrimination, and achieve rather good performance on representations.
- Clustering-based discrimination may help in the generalization of other pre-trained models, transferring models from pretext objectives to real tasks better.
- M3S [131] adopts the similar idea to perform DeepCluster-based self-supervised pre-training for better semi-supervised prediction.
- A more radical step is made by BYOL [48], which discards negative sampling in self-supervised learning but achieve an even better result over InfoMin. For contrastive learning methods the authors mention above, they learn representations by predicting different views of the same image and cast the prediction problem directly in representation space.
- No matter how self-supervised learning models improve, they are still only powerful feature extractor, and to transfer to downstream task the authors still need abundant labels.
- In Section 4.2.1, the authors have introduced M3S [?] that attempts to combine cluster-based contrastive pre-training and downstream semi-supervised learning.
- They propose a 3-step framework: 1) Do self-supervised pre-training as SimCLR v1, with some minor architecture modification and a deeper ResNet. 2) Fine-tune the last few layers with only 1% or 10% of original ImageNet labels.
- A reason for the generative model’s success in self-supervised learning is its ability to fit the data distribution, based on which varied downstream tasks can be conducted.
- The inception of adversarial representation learning should be attributed to Generative Adversarial Networks (GAN) [114], which proposes the adversarial training framework.

- Table1: An overview of recent self-supervised representation learning. For acronyms used, “FOS” refers to fields of study; “NS” refers to negative samples; “PS” refers to positive samples; “MI” refers to mutual information. For alphabets in “Type”: G Generative ; C Contrastive; G-C Generative-Contrastive (Adversarial)

Funding

- The work is supported by the National Key R&D Program of China (2018YFB1402600), NSFC for Distinguished Young Scholar (61825602), and NSFC (61836013)

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- Li Mian received bachelor degree(2020) from Department of Computer Science, Beijing Institute of Technology. She is now admitted into a graduate program in Georgia Institute of Technology. Her research interests focus on data mining, natural language processing and machine learning.

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