Effects Of Intraoperative Ketamine On Post-Operative Recovery In Obstructive Sleep Apnea Patients: A Case-Control Study

Nicole M Schreiner, Hari Kalagara,Charity J Morgan,Ayesha Bryant, David L Benz,Timothy J Ness,Promil Kukreja, Peter Nagi


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ObjectiveTo evaluate the post-operative outcomes of patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) given intraoperative ketamine.Design: case-control studyA total of 574 patients (287 received ketamine and 287 were matched controls) diagnosed with OSA and body mass index (BMI) > 30 who received general anesthesia were included in this study. Patients given intraoperative ketamine were matched (1:1) with those who did not receive ketamine for age, gender, BMI, ethnicity, anesthesia time, intraoperative fentanyl dose, ketamine dose, and surgery type. A sub-analysis was performed based on the dose of ketamine administered and also on the surgery type. Measured outcomes include post-operative pain scores, post-operative opioid requirements, respiratory status, oxygen use, and duration post-operatively.ResultsIntraoperative ketamine use did not decrease pain scores or post-operative opioid use when compared with the control (no intraoperative ketamine) group. Patients who received high-dose ketamine had significantly higher post-operative pain scores (p=0.048) while in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) and required supplemental oxygen for a longer period of time (p = 0.030), pain scores were not significant for patients who underwent orthopedic/spine procedures (p = 0.074), and high-dose ketamine group patients who underwent orthopedic/spine surgery required significantly more opioids in the PACU (p = 0.031). Among patients who received low-dose ketamine, those who underwent head, ear, nose, and throat surgery required significantly more opioids in PACU (p = 0.022).ConclusionsLow-dose intraoperative ketamine did not decrease pain scores or post-operative opioid use significantly and did not improve standard respiratory recovery parameters for OSA patients after surgery. Neither low- nor high-dose ketamine demonstrated the anticipated benefits of low pain scores and reduced post-operative opioid use. These outcomes will differ depending on the surgery type and dose of ketamine used.
obstructive sleep apnea, post-operative opioids, peri-operative analgesia, perioperative pain management, body mass index
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