Recovery of Vision after Optic Nerve Sheath Fenestration in Children and Adolescents with Elevated Intracranial Pressure.

Daphna Landau Prat, Grant T Liu,Robert A Avery, Gui-Shuang Ying,Yineng Chen, Lauren A Tomlinson,Karen E Revere, James A Katowitz,William R Katowitz

American journal of ophthalmology(2021)

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Abstract
PURPOSE:To evaluate the effect of optic nerve sheath fenestration (ONSF) on the recovery of visual function in pediatric patients with optic disc swelling owing to increased intracranial pressure. DESIGN:Retrospective case series. METHODS:Medical chart review of all pediatric patients who underwent ONSF between 2009 and 2020 at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia. Visual function was assessed at pre and postoperative visits. The main outcome measures were visual acuity, color vision, extraocular motility, visual field mean deviation, retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measured by optical coherence tomography. RESULTS:Fourteen pediatric patients (10 females; mean ± SD age of 14 ± 2.6 years; range, 8.5-17.5 years) were included. Five patients underwent bilateral surgeries. Ten patients were diagnosed with idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Of the 10 idiopathic intracranial hypertension patients, 3 had a previous history of weight gain and 2 of systemic steroid treatment; these can be referred to as pseudotumor cerebri. The mean ± SD follow-up length was 16.4 ± 12.3 months. VA improved from 20/138 to 20/68 in the operated eye (P = .0003) and from 20/78 to 20/32 in the nonoperated eye (P = .02). Color vision improved in the operated eye (P = .04), extraocular motility improved in the operated and nonoperated eye (P = .002 and P = .04 respectively). Visual field mean deviation improved in the operated (-23.4 dB to -11.5 dB, P < .0001) and nonoperated eye (-19.8 dB to -6.8 dB, P = .02). Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness improved in the operated eye (349.1 to 66.2 µm; P < .0001). The postoperative improvement was observed as early as the postoperative day 1. CONCLUSIONS:ONSF produces a rapid and persistent vision improvement in both the operated eye and the nonoperated eye. In children and young adults with papilledema and elevated intracranial pressure causing vision loss that is severe at presentation or refractory to standard medical management, ONSF should be considered.
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