Hetero-interface of electrolyte/2D materials


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Electrochemical gating has been demonstrated as a powerful tool to tune the physical properties of two-dimensional (2D) materials, leading to lots of fascinating quantum phenomena. However, the reported liquid-nature electrolytes (e.g, ionic liquid and ion-gel) cover the top surface of 2D materials, introduce the strain at the hetero-interface, and present sensitivity to humidity, which strongly limits the further exploration of the hetero-interface between electrolyte and 2D materials, and their wide applications for electronics and optoelectronics. Herein, by introducing a lithium-ion solid-state electrolyte, the character of the electric double layer (EDL) at hetero-interface and its effect on the optical property of transition metal chalcogenides (TMDs) have been revealed by Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) and (time-resolved) photoluminescence measurements. The work function of TMDs can be strongly tailored by electrochemical gating, up to 0.7eV for WSe2 and 0.3 eV for MoS2, respectively. Besides, from the gate-dependent surface potential of TMDs with different thicknesses, the potential drop across the EDL has been quantitatively revealed. Furthermore, from the gate-dependent PL emission at room temperature, monolayer WS2 exhibits only neutral exciton emission in the whole range of gate voltage applied, which also exhibits exciton-exciton annihilation. Our results demonstrate that lithium-ion substrate is a promising alternative to explore the physics of 2D materials and the hetero-interface of electrolyte/2D materials by easily integrating both scanning probe and optical techniques.
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