Freestanding Laser-Induced Graphene Ultrasensitive Resonative Viral Sensors

ACS APPLIED MATERIALS & INTERFACES(2022)

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Abstract
Early and reliable detection of an infectious viral disease is critical to accurately monitor outbreaks and to provide individuals and health care professionals the opportunity to treat patients at the early stages of a disease. The accuracy of such information is essential to define appropriate actions to protect the population and to reduce the likelihood of a possible pandemic. Here, we show the fabrication of freestanding laser-induced graphene (FLIG) flakes that are highly sensitive sensors for highfidelity viral detection. As a case study, we show the detection of SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins. FLIG flakes are nonembedded porous graphene foams ca. 30 ??m thick that are generated using laser irradiation of polyimide and can be fabricated in seconds at a low cost. Larger pieces of FLIG were cut forming a cantilever, used as suspended resonators, and characterized for their electromechanics behavior. Thermomechanical analysis showed FLIG stiffness comparable to other porous materials such as boron nitride foam, and electrostatic excitation showed amplification of the vibrations at frequencies in the range of several kilo-hertz. We developed a protocol for aqueous biological sensing by characterizing the wetting dynamic response of the sensor in buffer solution and in water, and devices functionalized with COVID-19 antibodies specifically detected SARS-CoV-2 spike protein binding, while not detecting other viruses such as MS2. The FLIG sensors showed a clear mass dependent frequency response shift of ???1 Hz/pg, and low nanomolar concentrations could be detected. Ultimately, the sensors demonstrated an outstanding limit of detection of 2.63 pg, which is equivalent to as few as ???5000 SARS-CoV-2 viruses. Thus, the FLIG platform technology can be utilized to develop portable and highly accurate sensors, including biological applications where the fast and reliable or infectious detection is critical. Superscript/Subscript AvailableMore
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Key words
freestanding laser-induced graphene,COVID-19,resonators,viral detection,biochemical sensors
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