Integrated Multi-Omics Analysis Reveals Differential Effects of Fructo-Oligosaccharides (FOS) Supplementation on the Human Gut Ecosystem

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES(2022)

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Abstract
Changes in the gut ecosystem, including the microbiome and the metabolome, and the host immune system after fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) supplementation were evaluated. The supplementation of FOS showed large inter-individual variability in the absolute numbers of fecal bacteria and an increase in Bifidobacterium. The fecal metabolome analysis revealed individual variability in fructose utilization in response to FOS supplementation. In addition, immunoglobulin A(IgA) tended to increase upon FOS intake, and peripheral blood monocytes significantly decreased upon FOS intake and kept decreasing in the post-FOS phase. Further analysis using a metagenomic approach showed that the differences could be at least in part due to the differences in gene expressions of enzymes that are involved in the fructose metabolism pathway. While the study showed individual differences in the expected health benefits of FOS supplementation, the accumulation of "personalized" knowledge of the gut ecosystem with its genetic expression may enable effective instructions on prebiotic consumption to optimize health benefits for individuals in the future.
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Key words
fructo-oligosaccharides,microbiome,gut ecosystem,omics analysis,metabolome
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