Rare thoracic cancers: a comprehensive overview of diagnosis and management of small cell lung cancer, malignant pleural mesothelioma and thymic epithelial tumours.

European respiratory review : an official journal of the European Respiratory Society(2023)

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摘要
Despite the progress in outcomes seen with immunotherapy in various malignancies, including nonsmall cell lung cancer, the benefits are less in small cell lung cancer, malignant pleural mesothelioma and thymic epithelial tumours. New effective treatment options are needed, guided more in-depth insights into the pathophysiology of these rare malignancies. This review comprehensively presents an overview of the clinical presentation, diagnostic tools, staging systems, pathophysiology and treatment options for these rare thoracic cancers. In addition, opportunities for further improvement of therapies are discussed.
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