Unsupervised Discovery of Semantic Latent Directions in Diffusion Models

CoRR(2023)

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Abstract
Despite the success of diffusion models (DMs), we still lack a thorough understanding of their latent space. While image editing with GANs builds upon latent space, DMs rely on editing the conditions such as text prompts. We present an unsupervised method to discover interpretable editing directions for the latent variables $\mathbf{x}_t \in \mathcal{X}$ of DMs. Our method adopts Riemannian geometry between $\mathcal{X}$ and the intermediate feature maps $\mathcal{H}$ of the U-Nets to provide a deep understanding over the geometrical structure of $\mathcal{X}$. The discovered semantic latent directions mostly yield disentangled attribute changes, and they are globally consistent across different samples. Furthermore, editing in earlier timesteps edits coarse attributes, while ones in later timesteps focus on high-frequency details. We define the curvedness of a line segment between samples to show that $\mathcal{X}$ is a curved manifold. Experiments on different baselines and datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of our method even on Stable Diffusion. Our source code will be publicly available for the future researchers.
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Key words
semantic latent directions,unsupervised discovery,diffusion,models
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