Efficient solution of bimaterial Riemann problems for compressible multi-material flow simulations

Journal of Computational Physics(2023)

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Abstract
When solving compressible multi-material flow problems, an unresolved challenge is the computation of advective fluxes across material interfaces that separate drastically different thermodynamic states and relations. A popular idea in this regard is to locally construct bimaterial Riemann problems, and to apply their exact solutions in flux computation. For general equations of state, however, finding the exact solution of a Riemann problem is expensive as it requires nested loops. Multiplied by the large number of Riemann problems constructed during a simulation, the computational cost often becomes prohibitive. The work presented in this paper aims to accelerate the solution of bimaterial Riemann problems without introducing approximations or offline precomputation tasks. The basic idea is to exploit some special properties of the Riemann problem equations, and to recycle previous solutions as much as possible. Following this idea, four acceleration methods are developed, including (1) a change of integration variable through rarefaction fans, (2) storing and reusing integration trajectory data, (3) step size adaptation, and (4) constructing an R-tree on the fly to generate initial guesses. The performance of these acceleration methods is assessed using four example problems in underwater explosion, laser-induced cavitation, and hypervelocity impact. These problems exhibit strong shock waves, large interface deformation, contact of multiple (>2) interfaces, and interaction between gases and condensed matters. For all the problems, the acceleration methods are able to significantly reduce the computational cost without affecting solver robustness or solution accuracy. In different cases, the solution of bimaterial Riemann problems is accelerated by 37 to 87 times. As a result, the total cost of advective flux computation, which includes the exact Riemann problem solution at material interfaces and the numerical flux calculation over the entire computational domain, is accelerated by 18 to 81 times.
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Key words
Multiphase flow,Multi-material flow,Riemann problem,Equation of state,Compressible flow
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