When interlocutor's face-language matching alters: An ERP study on face contexts and bilingual language control in mixed-language picture naming.

Frontiers in psychology(2023)

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Abstract
The present study used event-related potentials (ERP) to examine Chinese-English bilinguals' reactive and proactive language control as they performed mixed-language picture naming with face cues. All participants named pictures in Chinese (first language, L1) and English (second language, L2) across three sessions: a 25% face-language matched session, a baseline session without face cues, and a 75% face-language matched session. Behavioral analyses for reactive language control showed that the asymmetrical switch cost was larger for L2 than L1 in the 25% session and for L1 than L2 in the 75% session. ERP results revealed more negative N2 and LPC during L1 switching in 25% session but enhanced N2 during L2 switching in 75% session. Similar N2 and LPC effect was found during L1 and L2 switching in the baseline context. For proactive language control, the reversed language dominance and enhanced LPC amplitudes during L2 naming were consistent across the three sessions. Our findings suggest that reactive but not proactive language control is modulated by the ever-changing face contexts, which highlights the highly flexible bilingual control systems subserving nonlinguistic cues.
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Key words
bilingual lexical production,event-related potentials,face contexts,proactive language control,reactive language control
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