Supervised Learning by Evolutionary Computation Tuning: An Application to Blockchain-Based Pharmaceutical Supply Chain Cost Model


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A pharmaceutical supply chain (PSC) is a system of processes, operations, and organisations for drug delivery. This paper provides a new PSC mathematical cost model, which includes Blockchain technology (BT), that can improve the safety, performance, and transparency of medical information sharing in a healthcare system. We aim to estimate the costs of the BT-based PSC model, select algorithms with minimum prediction errors, and determine the cost components of the model. After the data generation, we applied four Supervised Learning algorithms (k-nearest neighbour, decision tree, support vector machine, and naive Bayes) combined with two Evolutionary Computation algorithms (ant colony optimization and the firefly algorithm). We also used the Feature Weighting approach to assign appropriate weights to all cost model components, revealing their importance. Four performance metrics were used to evaluate the cost model, and the total ranking score (TRS) was used to determine the most reliable predictive algorithms. Our findings show that the ACO-NB and FA-NB algorithms perform better than the other six algorithms in estimating the costs of the model with lower errors, whereas ACO-DT and FA-DT show the worst performance. The findings also indicate that the shortage cost, holding cost, and expired medication cost more strongly influence the cost model than other cost components.
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Key words
Blockchain-based pharmaceutical supply chain,Supervised Learning algorithms,Evolutionary Computation algorithms,Blockchain technology
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